地理研究 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (8): 1510-1518.doi: 10.11821/yj2010080016

• 土地资源与利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

近30年延安市耕地变化的政策背景及其作用机理

朱会义, 吕昌河   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2009-08-30 修回日期:2010-01-08 出版日期:2010-08-25 发布日期:2010-08-30
  • 作者简介:
    朱会义(1966-),男,江苏响水人,副研究员。主要从事土地科学研究。E-mail:zhuhy@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KZCX2-YW-421);国家自然科学基金项目(40671007)

Farmland change in Yan’an: The impact and acting mechanism of policies

ZHU Hui-yi, LU Chang-he   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2009-08-30 Revised:2010-01-08 Online:2010-08-25 Published:2010-08-30

摘要:

建立健全生态保护的长效机制以巩固现有生态退耕成果,是目前和未来中国生态建设需要解决的一个重要问题。针对这一问题,本文以最早开始退耕试点的延安市为研究区,利用统计资料,分析了延安市近30年耕地变化过程、耕地变化的政策背景及其作用机理。研究发现,面积逐步减少是延安市1978年以后耕地变化的长期趋势,减少的耕地主要流向果园、林地和草地;政策措施对退耕过程虽具有显著的加速作用,但在市场经济条件下,耕地的长期流向最终决定于各种用途间的比较效益和农户的生产投入能力。研究结果表明,要形成生态保护的长效机制,必须改变退耕土地的比较效益和农户的生产投入能力。

关键词: 耕地变化, 比较效益, 投入能力, 退耕还林, 延安市

Abstract:

China has made great progress in reforestation since the 1990s. More than 686.25×104 hm2 of farmland was converted to forestland and pasture during the grain for green project, which led to some positive changes in ecological system, but did not influence national grain supply significantly. However, to preserve the achievement from expansion of farmland under increasing population pressure and economic development, some new institutional measures need to be taken based on a better understanding of regional farmland change. This paper, taking Yan’an region, one of the earliest test-regions for reforestation, as the study area, analyzes its farmland variation between 1978 and 2007 and studies the impact and acting mechanism of policies. Empirical analysis reveals that the reduction in farmland area was a long-term regional trend from 1978 to 2007 instead of a short-term trend dominated by grain for green policy. The reduction process can be identified into six periods according to yearly change rates, and each period of farmland change was affected by different institutional factors such as soil conservation projects, reforms of agriculture tax, subsidies for grain production and grain for green policy. Although there are different driving factors for different periods of farmland change, it is consistent that the changed farmland turned mainly into orchard land, forest land and pasture. The consistent conversion from farmland to orchard land results in the higher comparative benefit of orchard production, and its gradual change can be attributed to the gradual increase of farmers’ capability in investment. Moreover, the impact of an institutional factor on farmland change is determined by to what extent it changes comparative benefits of land use types and farmers’ capability. Comparative benefit and farmers’ capability seem to be the dominative factors in regional farmland change. Therefore, to preserve forest land and pasture which has low comparative benefit from the conversion to farmland, subsidization for reforestation should be continued for a short period. Meanwhile, long-term measures should be taken as soon as possible, which includes more labor transfer and economic benefit upgrading of forest and pasture through ecological tour, green production and guaranty of forest right.

Key words: farmland change, comparative benefit, farmer&rsquo, capability in investment, reforestation, Yan’an in China