地理研究 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (11): 2089-2098.doi: 10.11821/yj2010110017

• 文化与旅游 • 上一篇    下一篇

贵州仡佬族精英的民族身份认同及其建构

杜芳娟1,2, 朱竑1   

  1. 1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广州 510275;
    2. 贵州师范大学中国南方喀斯特研究院,贵阳 550001
  • 收稿日期:2009-12-30 修回日期:2010-07-21 出版日期:2010-11-20 发布日期:2010-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 朱竑,博士,教授,博士生导师。E-mail:zhuh@scnu.edu.cn E-mail:zhuh@scnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:杜芳娟(1977-),女,副教授,博士生。研究方向为文化地理学。
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40771067、40861005);广东省自然科学基金项目"转型期广州城市新移民文化身份认同及地方感研究"。

The Gelao minority elites&rsquo|ethnic identity and its construction

DU Fang-juan1,2, ZHU Hong1   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    2. Institute of South China Karst, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001, China
  • Received:2009-12-30 Revised:2010-07-21 Online:2010-11-20 Published:2010-11-20

摘要: 少数民族精英的态度、情感和行为对维系族群文化传承等有着重要作用。通过对仡佬族精英的体验式观察、深度访谈和结构式访谈,精英群体的民族身份认同表现出明显的空间差异和角色差异:居住在民族乡和各散居点的精英比自治县精英的民族情感要强烈、文化特征要明显,其民族身份认同具有"根基性"特点,而自治县精英尤其是政治精英的身份认同则具有明显的"工具性"。所不同的是,政治精英和部分文化精英有更明确的民族文化复兴行为。这一原因是以仡佬族地理空间格局变迁为前提,导致仡佬族的族群身份建构、历史记忆和族际关系等存在明显的空间差异,这些因素进一步建构了精英的民族认同。

关键词: 仡佬族, 民族精英, 身份认同, 建构

Abstract: Identity is one of the important themes of cultural geography in recent years. With the globalization and modernization, the minority ethnic elites' attitudes, emotions and behaviors are significant to hold the ethnic groups together and pass on the ethnic culture. Based on the field work and structured interview, the Gelao minority elites' ethnic identity was studied by investigating their ethnic memory, ethnic culture such as language and raiment, ethnic attachment to their ethnic group and their ethnic places etc. The results are shown as follows. the elites' ethnic identities are relevant with their roles in social structure, and the political elites have more ethnic actions. The elites' ethnic identities are consistent with their place identities. The scattered spots have stronger ethnic feelings and traditional culture such as ethnic languages and festivals than those in Wuchuan and Daozhen autonomous counties of Gelao and Miao, but the latter have more effective actions such as revived ethnic language, raiment and festivals in order to develop the ethnic places. The reason is that the government force penetrated into the Gelao's territory from north Guizhou in feudal period, and other ethnic groups also came successively, which formed the spatial patterns of the Gelao living together with Han, Miao, Tujia, Buyi and Yi ethnic groups, etc. Therefore, the Gelao ethnic culture with Han's assimilation in the north of Guizhou, including Wuchuan, Daozhen, Zhengan, Shiqian, etc., and some small ethnic groups have succeeded part of traditional culture from other areas, such as Judu in Liuzhi county, Pomao in Zhenfeng county, etc. These have had impact on the construction of the elites' ethnic identities. The ethnic identities of Gelao elites were primordial because they were constructed by the whole families and groups since collective memory in the scattered spots is mainly oral tradition; but the elites' ethnic identities collective memory were reworked and forgotten purposely for evading suppression in some parts of northern Guizhou, and their ethnic identities were reconstructed in the 1980s by elites according to text memory or some scrap traits, so their ethnic feelings are not very strong, and their ethnic identities are instrumental. These elites have benefits from policies and revived ethnic culture to develop ethnic tourism today, which promotes their own ethnic identities. In conclusion, all of the ethnic geographical space patterns, political, economic, historical and cultural factors are the basis of ethnic identity, ethnic memory and the interaction among all ethnic groups, which have constructed the elites' ethnic identities.

Key words: Gelao minority, ethnic elites, ethnic identity, identity construction