地理研究 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (12): 2251-2260.doi: 10.11821/yj2010120014

• 土地资源与利用 • 上一篇    下一篇

塔里木河流域绿洲耕地变化及其河流水文效应

满苏尔·沙比提1, 努尔卡木里·玉素甫2   

  1. 1. 新疆师范大学地理科学与旅游学院,乌鲁木齐 830054;
    2. 伊犁师范学院奎屯校区生命与资源环境系,奎屯市833200
  • 收稿日期:2010-07-29 修回日期:2010-09-28 出版日期:2010-12-20 发布日期:2010-12-20
  • 作者简介:满苏尔·沙比提(1963-),男,维吾尔族,新疆阿克苏人,教授,硕士生导师。主要从事干旱区绿洲资源、环境评价与可持续发展研究。E-mail : mansursa@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(40961032)

Oasis land use change and its hydrological response to Tarim River Basin

MANSUR Sabit1, NURKAMIL Yusuf2   

  1. 1. School of Geographic Science and Tourism, Xinjiang Normal University, Urumqi 830054, China;
    2. Department of Life and Resources and the Environment, Kuytun Section, Ili Normal School, Kuytun 833200, Xinjiang, China
  • Received:2010-07-29 Revised:2010-09-28 Online:2010-12-20 Published:2010-12-20

摘要:

根据塔里木河流域各地州的绿洲耕地数据和各主要水文站的实测数据,分析了建国以来流域耕地面积的总体变化趋势、变化速度、区域差异及其河流水文效应。结果表明:(1)近60年来塔里木河流域的耕地面积呈现波动增加的态势,年均增长率为2.37%,但人均耕地面积却经历了从增加到减少的变化过程,年均减少率为0.44%;耕地空间变化的区域差异明显,土地后备资源相对丰富的巴州耕地相对变化率最大,而和田地区耕地相对变化率最小。(2)绿洲灌溉耕地面积扩大引起的河流流程、径流量、洪水、水质、泥沙等水文效应较显著,尤其是对径流量的影响极为突出。目前,流域综合治理节水项目已初见成效,各源流向塔里木河干流下泄水量减少趋势得到初步遏制。为此保障流域的可持续协调发展,必须长期坚持流域的综合治理,建立流域水资源的统一管理体制,确保流域水资源的合理配置和利用。

关键词: 绿洲耕地, 变化特征, 河流水文效应, 塔里木河流域

Abstract:

In recent years, the study on hydrological effect of land use change has become a focus. In the Tarim River Basin, land use change has exerted great effect on hydrological process of a river, so it is necessary to study the hydrological effect of land use change in the river basin. As cultivated land dominates the land use type in the Tarim River Basin, based on the statistical data of cultivated land of each prefecture and tested data of each main water station in Tarim River Basin, this paper analyzes the total variation trend, variation speed, regional difference and hydrological effect on water quantity of the river. The results are shown as follows. (1) The cultivated land area in the Tarim River Basin shows a fluctuating increasing trend with an annual rate of 2.37%, but per capita cultivated land area saw a gradual decrease with an annual rate of 0.44%. There is a significant spatial disparity in the cultivated land changes. The change of cultivated land area in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture where the reserved land and water resources are plentiful is large, and that in Hotan Prefecture located at the northern foot of Kunlun Mountains is small. (2) As a result of the expansion of cultivated land area in the Tarim River Basin, the hydrological effect such as river process, river discharge, flood, water quality and silt are more remarkable than before, and the spatial effect on river discharge is striking. As a result of cultivated land expansion, cultivated land and consuming water rise by 34.80% and 21.78% from 1957 to 2006, respectively. At the same time, water pollution and the decreasing of the water quality have become the confinement of social development in the Tarim River Basin. At present, the project of water saving has taken effect, and the trend of the venting water quantity from streams to the Tarim River has been under control. In order to keep the sustainable development in this region, it is urgent to harness the Tarim River in a long term, set up coherent management system of water resources, and use water resources reasonably.

Key words: oasis cultivated land, characteristics of change, hydrological response of the river, Tarim River Basin