地理研究 ›› 2010, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (12): 2289-2297.doi: 10.11821/yj2010120018

• 气候与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

历史时期气候变化对中国古代农业影响研究的若干进展

何凡能, 李柯, 刘浩龙   

  1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京,100101
  • 收稿日期:2010-07-03 修回日期:2010-10-26 出版日期:2010-12-20 发布日期:2010-12-20
  • 作者简介:何凡能 (1963-),男,福建仙游人,副研究员。主要从事历史地理与环境变迁研究。 E-mail: hefn@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金面上项目(40971061);国家自然科学基金杰出青年基金(40625002)

The influence of historical climate change on agriculture in ancient China

HE Fan-neng, LI Ke, LIU Hao-long   

  1. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2010-07-03 Revised:2010-10-26 Online:2010-12-20 Published:2010-12-20

摘要:

IPCC报告指出:气候变暖将给人类农业生产和粮食安全带来严重的"负面"影响。中国历史上的情况又是怎样的呢?本文在前人工作的基础上,通过对我国秦汉以来气候变化与农业经济发展对应关系的梳理与分析,从百年尺度上阐明气候变化对我国古代农业生产的影响,结果表明:暖期利于农业发展,冷期则相反。当气候温暖时(如秦汉、隋唐时期),北方农业种植界线北移,农耕区扩大,同时农作物生长期增长,熟制增加,粮食产量提高;而当气候寒冷时(如魏晋南北朝、唐后期至五代时期),农业种植界线南退,宜农土地减少,农作物生长期缩短,熟制区域单一,粮食产量下降。古代稻作区的分布也具有类同的变化。

关键词: 气候变化, 农业生产, 历史时期, 中国

Abstract:

This paper made an analysis of the relationship between climate change and agricultural development in China since the Qin Dynasty. The following conclusions are obtained about how historical climate fluctuation influenced ancient agricultural production. Warm periods were beneficial to agricultural development while cold periods made against to it. When the climate was warm (e.g. Qin, Han, Sui and Tang dynasties), the northern boundary of farming moved northward. Thus, cultivation area expanded. And crop growing time and cropping patterns would also increase due to relatively high temperature. As a result, crop yields were greatly improved. However, during cold periods, (e.g. Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties, Late Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties period), the boundary of farming moved southward, cropping patterns became single, cultivation land and crop growing time reduced. These changes caused the decrease of crop yield. Moreover, the history of rice distribution in ancient China shows that during warm periods, single cropping rice was widely planted in the Yellow River Basin, and double cropping rice could grow in the Yangtze River Basin. But when the climate became cold, the range of the distribution of single cropping rice plant in the Yellow River Basin was significantly diminished, and double cropping rice retreated to the south of the Yangtze River Basin.

Key words: climate change, agricultural development, historical period, China