地理研究 ›› 2011, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (8): 1421-1430.doi: 10.11821/yj2011080008

• 水文与水资源 • 上一篇    下一篇

黑河上游多年基流变化及其原因分析

张华1, 张勃1, 赵传燕2   

  1. 1. 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院, 兰州 730070;
    2. 兰州大学干旱与草地生态教育部重点实验室, 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2010-08-22 修回日期:2010-11-22 出版日期:2011-08-20 发布日期:2011-08-20
  • 作者简介:张华(1978-) , 女, 甘肃省兰州市人, 讲师,博士。主要从事生态水文研究。E-mail : zhanghua@nwnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目( 40961038,91025015);公益性行业(气象)科研资助专项(GYHY200806021-07);中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向资助项目(KZCX2-YWQ10-4)

Annual base flow change and its causes in the upper reaches of Heihe River

ZHANG Hua1, ZHANG Bo1, ZHAO Chuan-yan2   

  1. 1. Geography and Environment College of Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Arid and Grassland Agroecology, Lanzhou Univerity, Ministry of Education, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2010-08-22 Revised:2010-11-22 Online:2011-08-20 Published:2011-08-20

摘要: 利用递归数字滤波法分割黑河上游主要水文站点的基流量,用移动平均、曼-肯德尔(Mann-Kendall)突变检验,小波分析方法分析研究区多年基流变化特点,并对基流影响因子进行分析。结果显示:黑河上游祁连、扎马什克、莺落峡三站多年平均基流指数均大于0.4;祁连与莺落峡多年基流量呈上升趋势,二者都在1979年发生增加到显著增加的突变。扎马什克基流波动较大,总体呈下降趋势;三站基流分别存在11年、6年、15年的明显变化周期。基流量变化主要受降水的影响。人类活动对基流的影响主要表现在造成黑河上游森林面积减少,使其补给调节基流的能力下降,从而使基流量减少且更易受气候变化的影响。黑河上游基流变化特征符合西北地区对全球气候变化的响应的一致性,同时也有其受到祁连山冰雪融水补给、山区特殊地形等影响,从而体现对全球气候变化响应的差异性。

关键词: 基流, 数字滤波, 曼-肯德尔突变检验, 小波分析, 黑河上游

Abstract: Base flow is one of the most important river hydrological characteristics in dry season. In recent years, with the global water issues becoming more prominent, base flow has become research focus in eco-hydrology. For the stability and hysteresis, base flow is significant to maintain river's ecological functions, determines river's ecological water requirement, and provides food and service for the locals in arid and semi-arid regions. The study area, upper reaches of Heihe River Basin, is located in the Qilian Mountains, northern part of Tibetan Plateau, China, with elevations of 2300-4000 m. The watershed area is 1.0009×104 km2.
The recursive digital filter technique was used to separate annual base flow of three main hydrological stations in the upper reaches of Heihe River. The methods of moving average, Mann-Kendall abrupt test and wavelet variance were employed to explain the characteristics of the annual change of base flow. Precipitation and temperature data of six adjacent meteorological observational stations and human activities were used to analyze the influencing factor of base flow. The results indicated that the Base flow Index (BFI) was greater than 0.4 in Qilian, Zhamashike and Yingluoxia stations. The notable increase of base flow was observed in 1979, when there was an abrupt point at Qilian and Yingluoxia stations. The base flow fluctuated at Zhamashike station. The periods of base flow were 11, 6 and 15 years respectively at Qilian, Zhamashike and Yingluoxia stations. The change of base flow was mainly affected by precipitation. The influence of human activities on base flow was another factor. The forest areas were decreased by human activities, which made the capacity of recharging and adjusting base flow in decline. In turn, the base flow went down and was greatly influenced by climatic change. The base flow change showed the consistency with the response of Northwest China to the global climate change and also reflects the differences in response to global climate change.

Key words: base flow, digital filter technique, Mann-Kendall abrupt test, Wavelet analysis