地理研究 ›› 2011, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (9): 1566-1576.doi: 10.11821/yj2011090003

• 文化与旅游 • 上一篇    下一篇

地方性形成机制的结构主义与人文主义分析——以798和M50两个艺术区在城市地方性塑造中的作用为例

周尚意1, 杨鸿雁1, 孔翔2   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院,北京 100875;
    2. 华东师范大学资源与环境科学学院,上海 200062
  • 收稿日期:2011-03-05 修回日期:2011-06-28 出版日期:2011-09-20 发布日期:2011-09-20
  • 作者简介:周尚意(1960-),女,广西罗城人,博士,教授,主要从事人文地理学研究。 E-mail:twizsy@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    自然科学基金(40871074);国家科技部科技基础性工作专项重点项目(2007FY140800)

The structuralistic and humanistic mechanism of placeness: A case study of 798 and M50 art districts

ZHOU Shang-yi1, YANG Hong-yan1, KONG Xiang2   

  1. 1. School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    2. School of Resources and Environmental Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
  • Received:2011-03-05 Revised:2011-06-28 Online:2011-09-20 Published:2011-09-20

摘要: 探讨地方性的形成机制对保护传统的地方性和发展新的地方性十分必要。本文选择北京和上海两个艺术类文化创意产业集聚区,分析人文主义机制和结构主义机制的相互作用。按照结构主义的分析思路,调查了艺术区与外界的社会关系;按照人文主义的分析思路,调查了艺术家、画廊经营人和消费者对地方性的认同程度。研究发现:(1)结构主义和人文主义机制共同促成艺术区以景观体现城市的地方性。(2)国外艺术品需求的结构机制虽促成了对中国题材作品的需求,但尚未形成对两个城市地方性题材作品的强大需求。(3)在外界结构动力不足的情况下,三类人群对城市地方性的深层情感认同比较少,因此他们在创作或营销艺术品时,缺少人文主义的内在机制。由此建议:两市的政府应组织一些活动,鼓励艺术家创作本城市题材的艺术作品,从而使该类题材作品逐渐具有市场竞争力,并能抵制经济全球化过程对地方文化的负面冲击。

关键词: 文化产业, 艺术区, 地方性, 形成机制

Abstract: In the background of economic globalization, emotional needs and consumptive needs for other cultures have brought the study of placeness into focus. It is necessary to discuss the mechanism of the placeness formation for protecting traditional placeness and developing new placeness. The discussions over the mechanism of placeness formation have a variety of opinions. The two most important mechanisms are humanism during the 1970s-1990s and structuralism since the 1990s. But the current research of the interaction between two mechanisms is not adequate. This paper chooses one art district respectively in Beijing and Shanghai to analyze the interaction between the two mechanisms. In response to the practical issues, this paper tries to find out whether the art districts strengthen the placeness of cities while providing art works and which mechanism is more important upon forming placeness. The research group investigated the connection between the art districts and their social environments according to structuralism, and the place identity of the artists, gallery operators and consumers in the two art districts according to the humanism. Conclusions can be drawn as follows: (1) The mechanism of both structuralism and humanism contribute to the landscapes in the art districts which reflect the placeness of Beijing or Shanghai. The landscapes produced in historical period by structuralistic mechanism could become the identified landscapes in local people's memory of place. (2) Most of art works in the two art districts do not show the placeness of Beijing or Shanghai. Foreign demands for the art works, which result in the mechanism of structuralism, lead to the demand for art works on Chinese theme rather than on Beijing's theme or Shanghai's theme. (3) The artists, gallery operators and consumers have less place identities of Beijing or Shanghai because most of them are not locals. They represent the placeness of Beijing or Shanghai seldom from the bottom of hearts. The structuralistic mechanism is the essential one in placeness forming of the two art districts. So the two art districts play a less important role in strengthening the placeness of the two cities by humanistic mechanism, and they are short of inner mechanism of humanism during the process of art creation and marketing. This case study suggests that the government of Beijing or Shanghai should organize activities to encourage artists to create art works representing placeness of the city, which can make the art works competitive in the world market and minimize the negative impact on place by globalization.

Key words: cultural industry, art district, placeness, mechanism