地理研究 ›› 2011, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (10): 1775-1782.doi: 10.11821/yj2011100004

• 气候与全球变化 • 上一篇    下一篇

清代东蒙农业开发的消长及其气候变化背景

萧凌波1, 方修琦2, 叶瑜2   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学历史学院,北京 100875;
    2. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院,北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2011-01-25 修回日期:2011-05-28 出版日期:2011-10-20 发布日期:2011-10-20
  • 作者简介:萧凌波(1982-),男,湖北天门人,博士后,自然地理学博士,主要从事历史时期气候变化及其影响与适应研究。E-mail: xlingbo1@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    973计划(2010CB950103); 国家自然科学基金(40901099,41071127)

Agricultural development in Eastern Inner Mongolia and its climatic background during 1644-1911

XIAO Ling-bo1, FANG Xiu-qi2, YE Yu2   

  1. 1. School of History, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    2. School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2011-01-25 Revised:2011-05-28 Online:2011-10-20 Published:2011-10-20

摘要: 利用档案史料、建置沿革史研究成果等提取信息,建立历史代用指标序列,对清代(1644~1911)内蒙古东部地区农业开发的时空进程进行描述,结合当地农业气候资源条件(温度、降水)及清代气候变化(温度)探讨其中的气候因素。结果显示:(1)清代东蒙农业开发集中在现代年均≥10℃积温2500℃、降水量400mm以上区域之内;(2)农业开发的时间顺序为从水热条件较好的地区向较差的地区扩张,农业聚落的空间密度随水热条件的降低而降低;(3)大部分获得丰收的地点及主要余粮区集中在水热条件最好的承德周边;(4)温暖的18世纪农业发展状况显著好于寒冷的17世纪、19世纪——移民进程更加活跃,农业聚落更加深入牧区,而且集中了几乎所有的丰收及调粮记录。

关键词: 清代, 东蒙, 农业开发, 时空特征, 气候影响

Abstract: In this paper, based on historical document and research of administrative history, a group of proxy indexes are selected to describe the spatio-temporal pattern of agricultural development in the Eastern Inner Mongolia (EIM) during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). In comparison of these reconstructed proxy series with local agro-climatic resources (temperature and precipitation) and historical climate change (temperature) in the corresponding period, some results are obtained as follows. (1) Agricultural development in the EIM during 1644-1911 was mostly concentrated in the area with annual accumulated temperature (≥10℃) ≥2500℃ and annual precipitation ≥400 mm; (2) Regions with better climate conditions were reclaimed earlier with a higher density of agricultural settlements compared with poorer ones. (3) Most of the sites that had bumper harvest and the main output regions in grain production were distributed in Chengde and its surrounding areas with the best climate condition in the EIM. (4) Agriculture developed more prosperously in warmer 18th century than in colder 17th and 19th centuries, with more active agricultural migration, northerner agricultural settlements into pastoral region, and almost all the records about bumper harvest grained output.

Key words: Eastern Inner Mongolia, agricultural development, spatio-temporal pattern, climatic impacts, the Qing Dynasty