地理研究 ›› 2012, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (10): 1872-1886.doi: 10.11821/yj2012100013

• 经济与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

1949年以来中国西部大城市制造业企业迁移特征、模式及机制——以兰州市为例

郭杰1,3, 杨永春1,2, 冷炳荣1,4   

  1. 1. 兰州大学资源环境学院, 兰州730000;
    2. 兰州大学教育部西部环境重点实验室, 兰州730000;
    3. 海德堡大学地理学院, 海德堡69120, 德国;
    4. 重庆市规划设计研究院, 重庆401147
  • 收稿日期:2011-12-15 修回日期:2012-04-03 出版日期:2012-10-10 发布日期:2012-10-10
  • 通讯作者: 杨永春(1969-),男,陕西白水人,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为城市与区域发展与规划。E-mail:yangych@lzu.edu.cn E-mail:yangych@lzu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:郭杰,(1987-),女,甘肃兰州人,博士研究生,研究方向为城市与区域规划。E-mail:guoj-2009@lzu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(41171143,40771064);教育部新世纪优秀人才支持计划(NCET-07-0398)

Characteristics,models and mechanisms of manufacturing enterprises migrations of large cities in western China since 1949: Taking Lanzhou as an example

GUO Jie1,3, YANG Yong-chun1,2, LENG Bing-rong1,4   

  1. 1. College of Earth and Environmental Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    2. Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems(Ministry of Education), Lanzhou 730000, China;
    3. Heidelberg University, Heidelberg 69120, Germany;
    4. Chongqing Planning&Design Institute, Chongqing 401147, China
  • Received:2011-12-15 Revised:2012-04-03 Online:2012-10-10 Published:2012-10-10

摘要: 企业迁移研究是经济地理学的重要论题之一, 是一种从微观个体出发理解产业空间格局演变及其形成机制的重要视角。利用兰州市制造业企业迁移信息, 从迁移规模、方式、距离及迁移跨度4个方面对城市制造业企业空间位移特征进行分析, 一定程度上揭示了新中国成立以来, 中国西部大城市制造业企业迁移的模式、路径及其形成机制。案例分析表明:中国西部大城市制造业企业迁移模式由计划经济时期单一行政主导的“梯度式”迁移模式向市场经济体制时期企业自主选择的“渐进式”迁移与政府先行主导的“跳跃式”迁移相结合的模式过渡, 大体上经历了向心式集中迁移、中心-外围互迁、外向型跨越式迁移3个阶段。研究还表明, 经济体制转型、地方政府自主经营权下放等宏观环境变化, 地方政策影响下的旧城更新、开发区建设、城市内外交通设施改善, 企业自身由于外部环境变化和内在扩张需求等诸多因素相互组合及综合作用, 在一定程度上共同推动了中国西部大城市制造业企业的空间迁移活动。

关键词: 制造业, 企业迁移模式, 演化机制, 西部大城市, 兰州市

Abstract: Enterprises migrations research is an essential topic in economic geography, which provide us a unique perspective to understand the evolution and formation mechanisms of industrial spatial pattern.In this paper, we will use some information about scales, forms, distances and length of span to examine the characteristics of manufacturing enterprises migrations in larges cities of western China.To a certain extent, it can reveal the models, paths and mechanisms of enterprises migrations since 1949.The results show that the models of manufacturing enterprises migrations of large cities in western China have changed from “Gradient” pattern (government-oriented) to combinations of “Progressive” pattern (enterprises-oriented) and “Leapfrog” pattern (government-oriented), which goes through three stages, namely, “Inward concentration”, “Both inward concentration and outward disperse” and “great-leap-outward dispersion and concentration in some regions”.The factors including politics, economy and enterprises have effectively promoted the relocation of the manufacturing enterprises in different modes during different periods, which led to more complicated and diversified migration models.

Key words: manufacturing industry, enterprise migration patterns, evolutionary mechanisms, cities of western China, Lanzhou