地理研究 ›› 2012, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (11): 1952-1960.doi: 10.11821/yj2012110003

• 环境与生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

明代大同镇建设与生态环境变迁

王杰瑜, 王尚义   

  1. 太原师范学院历史系, 太原030012
  • 收稿日期:2012-02-10 修回日期:2012-07-15 出版日期:2012-11-10 发布日期:2012-11-10
  • 通讯作者: 王尚义(1955-),山西交口县人,博士,教授,主要研究方向历史地理学。E-mail:wsy326@263.com E-mail:wsy326@263.com
  • 作者简介:王杰瑜(1964-),山西宁武县人,博士,副教授,主要研究方向历史地理学。E-mail:wangjy0124@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金资助项目(41071335);国家社会科学重大研究项目(11&ZDO97)

The changes of eco-environment due to construction in Datong Town in Ming Dynasty

WANG Jie-yu, WAMG Shang-yi   

  1. History Department of Taiyuan Normal University, Taiyuan 030012, China
  • Received:2012-02-10 Revised:2012-07-15 Online:2012-11-10 Published:2012-11-10

摘要: 为抵御蒙古贵族侵扰,明朝于长城沿线设置了九个军事重镇。大同镇位于北京西北部,是明代重要的军事屏障,因此十分重视大同镇的建设。有明一代,围绕大同镇的建设,大批军士征调于此,修筑边墙堡寨,屯垦土地。这些政策与措施虽然为明朝国防安全发挥了极其重要的作用,但对资源形成了巨大的消耗,使这一地区的生态环境发生了剧烈的变化。大片森林和草场被新垦土地所吞噬,生态效益迅速跌落,土壤保水能力差,风蚀、水蚀严重,土地不断荒漠化,不少以土地为生的百姓被迫留离失所,影响到该区域经济社会的发展。同时,严重的水土流失也导致了河流水性与水质发生变化,殃及下流北京以及沿岸地区。生态与环境是经济社会发展基本的物质基础,历史警示在区域经济建设中,我们只有提高环境保护意识,注重资源环境利用的科学性,才能达到经济社会发展与生态良性循环的双赢目标。

关键词: 建设, 环境变迁, 大同镇, 明代

Abstract: In order to resist Mongolian intrusions and defend the capital, nine military towns were built along the Great Wall in the Ming Dynasty.Datong Town, one of the nine military towns, was the military barrier for Ming government, which was located in the northwest of Beijing.So Many soldiers were recruited to Datong to build city walls and fortress, and reclaim land.Although these measures and policies played an important role in the military security, large amounts of resources were consumed and the local eco-environment changed greatly.Large areas of forestland and grassland were encroached by the new reclaimed land, resulting in serious wind and water erosion as well as land desertification. Many people living on land were forced to seek shelter in distant lands, which had great influence on the regional economic and social development.Meanwhile, serious soil erosion led to great changes in river water and water quality in downstream of Beijing and coastal areas.Therefore we should raise consciousness of environmental protection, and focus on reasonable use of resources and environment in order to achieve the win-win goal in the regional social and economic development and ecological benign cycle.

Key words: eco-environmental changes, Datong Town, Ming Dynasty