地理研究 ›› 2012, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (11): 2031-2043.doi: 10.11821/yj2012110011

• 经济与区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国石化产业空间组织的演进历程与机制

刘鹤, 金凤君, 刘毅   

  1. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2011-12-12 修回日期:2012-05-01 出版日期:2012-11-10 发布日期:2012-11-10
  • 作者简介:刘鹤(1984-),男,博士,主要研究方向工业地理与区域经济学。E-mail:liuh.08b@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    中国博士后科学基金项目(2011M500375);国家自然科学基金资助项目(40635026)

Research on the evolution and mechanism of spatial organization of petrochemical industry in China

LIU He, JIN Feng-jun, LIU Yi   

  1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2011-12-12 Revised:2012-05-01 Online:2012-11-10 Published:2012-11-10

摘要: 本文研究了中国石化产业空间组织的演进及格局,探讨了其影响因子及作用机制。研究认为,中国石化产业空间组织经历了内陆分散布局、沿海局部快速集聚及沿海全面加速扩张三个阶段。经过60年发展,中国已形成了“十大石化产业基地”.原材料、市场和政策因素是影响中国石化产业空间组织的三大主导因素,各因素在不同阶段的作用强度存在差异。在石化产业发展的早期,原材料是影响石化产业布局的主要因素,在此因素的影响下,中国石化产业主要布局在原油丰富的东北和西北地区。改革开放以来,随着工业化和城市化进程的加快,市场成为影响石化产业空间布局的主导因素,中国石化产业开始向沿海局部地区布局。2000年以来,在原材料、市场、政策等多种因素驱动下,石化产业加速向沿海地区集聚,沿海石化产业带初步形成,无序扩张态势初现端倪。

关键词: 石化产业, 空间组织, 演进历程, 演进机制

Abstract: This article deals with the impact of main factors, notably as far as raw material, market and government are concerned, on the location patterns of the petrochemical industry in China.The paper is divided into two parts:ageneral description of the industry focusing on such aspects as history, major actors and relevant characteristics, and a discussion of the industry's location behavior.The paper divided the history of China's petrochemical industry into three stages:the inland scattered distribution stage (1949~1975), the partial coast centralized distribution stage (1976~1997) and the overall coast accelerating expansion stage (since 1998).In the inland scattered distribution stage, raw material was the major factor which influenced the location pattern of the industry, and China's petrochemical industry was mainly distributed in the oil-rich northeast and northwest regions.Since the reform and opening up, with the speeding up of industrialization and urbanization process, China's petrochemical industry entered a rapid development stage and was more concentrated in the coastal areas such as the Bohai Rim, Yangtze River Delta Region and Pearl River Delta Region, and market became the major location factor.Since 1993, China has been a net oil importing country, which means more and more crude oil is imported from abroad by sea transport, and being adjacent to port became an essential factor of petrochemical companies'location choice.In these circumstances, China's petrochemical industry accelerates its development in coastal areas.Nowadays, apetrochemical industrial belt is shaping along the coast, which shows a trend of scattered sprawl distribution pattern.In this process, local governments play a major role in the industry's location behavior, which take the petrochemical industry as a regional growth pole.In the future, in the dual role of raw materials (mainly from Middle East and North Africa by sea) and markets, China's petrochemical industry will continue to agglomerate in the coastal areas. By 2020, according to local planning, China's oil refining capacity will amount to 800 million tons, of which coastal areas will reach 550 million tons.

Key words: petrochemical industry, spatial organization, evolution course, evolution mechanism