地理研究 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (1): 41-54.doi: 10.11821/yj2013010005

• 土地利用与生态 • 上一篇    下一篇

大庆草甸草原区大型土壤动物功能类群

林琳, 邬天媛, 李景科, 张雪萍   

  1. 哈尔滨师范大学地理科学学院, 黑龙江省普通高等学校地理环境遥感监测重点实验室, 哈尔滨150025
  • 收稿日期:2012-04-20 修回日期:2012-08-15 出版日期:2013-01-10 发布日期:2013-01-10
  • 通讯作者: 张雪萍,女,黑龙江哈尔滨人,教授,主要从事环境生态与土壤动物学研究。E-mail:Hellozxp@163.com E-mail:Hellozxp@163.com
  • 作者简介:林琳(1986- ),女,黑龙江哈尔滨人,博士研究生,主要从事环境生态学研究。E-mail:linlin.tianxin@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41071033)

Studies on functional groups of macro-soil animals in Daqing meadow steppe based on the new classification

LIN Lin, WU Tianyuan, LI Jingke, ZHANG Xueping   

  1. College of Geographical Science, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025, China;
    Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Monitoring of Geographic Environment, College of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin 150025, China
  • Received:2012-04-20 Revised:2012-08-15 Online:2013-01-10 Published:2013-01-10

摘要: 在中国土壤动物已有的3个功能类群划分研究的基础上,将杂食性动物从原有3类群分类中分离出来,并加以补充与完善,形成了相对完整的腐食性、植食性、捕食性、杂食性四个功能类群。对大庆草甸草原区土壤动物功能类群进行调查,共获大型土壤动物1432只,隶属于3门4纲39类。植食性动物个体数量最多但生物量最小。各功能类群在水平方向的分布上,腐食、植食、捕食性动物在林地和轻度退化草原等相对稳定的环境占优势,而杂食性动物则在不稳定环境占优势,表现出明显的对不稳定环境的适应;垂直分布上,各功能类群的个体数除腐食性动物第二层最多外,均表现为自表层向下逐渐减少;时间变化上,不同群落各功能类群5月、7月、9月的动态变化表现不尽一致,不具有明显的规律性。

关键词: 大型土壤动物, 功能类群, 分类, 草甸草原, 大庆市

Abstract: The study of soil fauna functional groups is important to the research of soil animal ecology.Many species have similar feeding habits and functions in a wide range of soil fauna,as well as in ecosystems.Species composition of soil fauna varies in different regions,however,there is a certain rule for them to respond to the environmental change.So soil fauna is regarded as a stable indicator to reflect changes in the environment.Researching functional groups of macrofauna is meaningful to reduce the complexity of soil fauna biodiversity,and increase the reliability of system analysis.However,very little work has been done with respect to functional categories of soil fauna in Chinese grassland ecosystems. In this paper,dynamic investigation of soil fauna was systematically done in six sites in Daqing meadow zone,which revealed compositions,characteristics and distribution law of macrofauna,response to environmental change and role of functional group. In this paper,based on the study of three function groups of soil animals in China, systematic investigation was done on soil fauna.Omnivore was divided into the original three groups,and the classification was supplemented and perfected.Thus,relatively complete function groups were formed,and soil fauna could be divided into saprophyte,herbivore, omnivore and predatory animals.The classification system of four functional groups was more scientific,accurate and operational than three previous functional group systems.In this survey,a total of 1432 soil animals were collected,which belonged to 39 categories,4 classes and 3 phyla.There was a large number and low biomass in herbivore,which indicated that the size of this group was small.The horizontal distribution of soil fauna showed that saprophyte,herbivore and predatory animals were the dominant groups in stable environment, such as in the forest and in the slightly degraded pasture.The omnivore was the dominant groups in unstable environment,which adapted to this situation.Furthermore,the regularity of vertical distribution shows that the number of individuals of all groups gradually decreased from top to bottom except the second layer with the largest number of omnivore.The regularity of temporal evolution indicated the variations of all functional groups were different in May,July and September,and there was no certain regulation.By comparing functional groups of soil fauna in Daqing meadow ecosystem with that in typical forest ecosystem,it was found that the biomass of saprophyte,herbivore,predatory and omnivore in forest ecosystem was 3.8,14,6.5 and 0.9 times of that in meadow ecosystem,respectively.

Key words: macro-soil animals, functional groups, classification, Daqing, meadow