地理研究 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (1): 81-89.doi: 10.11821/yj2013010009

• 气候与自然灾害 • 上一篇    下一篇

2005-2010年中国自然灾害救助应急响应的区域分异特征

马玉玲1,2, 袁艺1, 程姚英3,4   

  1. 1. 民政部国家减灾中心, 北京100022;
    2. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院, 北京100875;
    3. 北京师范大学减灾与应急管理研究院, 北京100875;
    4. 国际科学理事会灾害风险综合研究计划国际项目办公室, 北京100094
  • 收稿日期:2012-04-24 修回日期:2012-08-17 出版日期:2013-01-10 发布日期:2013-01-10
  • 通讯作者: 袁艺(1976-),江苏江都人,研究员,博士,主要从事灾害评估与风险防范研究。E-mail:yuanyi@ndrcc.gov.cn
  • 作者简介:马玉玲(1979-),山东济宁人,博士,主要从事灾害风险评估与应急管理研究。E-mail:mylxdd@gmail.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家科技支撑计划项目(2006BAD20B04);国家自然科学基金项目(40801215)

Spatial distribution of emergency responses to natural disaster relief in China during 2005-2010

MA Yuling1,2, YUAN Yi1, CHENG Yaoying3,4   

  1. 1. National Disaster Reduction Center of China, Ministry of Civil Affairs, Beijing 100124, China;
    2. School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    3. Academy of Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management, Ministry of Civil Affairs & Ministry of Education, Beijing 100875, China;
    4. Integrated Research on Disaster Research, International Programme Office, Beijing 100094, China
  • Received:2012-04-24 Revised:2012-08-17 Online:2013-01-10 Published:2013-01-10

摘要: 应急响应是政府管理部门进行高效、科学应对各类突发事件的重要保障,受到世界各国的重视。针对重大自然灾害启动的自然灾害救助应急响应分四级,一般重大灾害一般启动四、三级响应,而特大灾害则需启动二、一级响应。本文统计分析了2005-2010年中国自然灾害救助应急响应的启动情况,结果表明:①应急响应南北分异特征明显,主要是由针对我国南方地区频繁发生的洪涝和台风灾害启动的四、三级等低级别响应决定,反映了近年一般重大灾害的发生以南方地区为主。②应急响应也呈现东西分异特征,其中,尤以针对中西部地区发生的特大地震、罕见的山洪泥石流以及影响严重的旱灾和低温雨雪冰冻等灾害启动的二、一级等高级别响应最为明显,反映了近年中西部地区灾害损失偏重发生。③中国针对各灾种的应急响应的区域分布特点,大致反映了各灾种的地理分布规律。

关键词: 自然灾害, 救助, 应急响应, 区域分异, 中国

Abstract: Emergency response is the effective and scientific way for the governments to cope with emergent events,which has been paid attention globally.In China,there are four grades of emergency response to natural disaster relief(ER).Generally,Grade-Ⅳ and Grade-Ⅲ are usually launched for major disasters,while Grade-Ⅱ and Grade-Ⅰ are usually launched for catastrophic disasters.Based on the analysis of the spatial pattern of frequency of ERs across China during 2005-2010,we found that the frequency of ERs varies from north to south.The high frequency of ERs in the south was dominantly derived from Grade-Ⅳ and Grade-Ⅲ, which were launched for floods,waterlogging and typhoon disasters.This reflects the major disasters which occurred in the south in these years.The results also indicate that there were more frequent ERs in the west than in the east.The west-east difference was dominantly resulted from high frequency of Grade-Ⅱ and Grade-Ⅰ of ERs in the central and western regions of China.These ERs in the west were mostly launched for catastrophic earthquakes, extreme flash floods and mud-rock flows,extreme severe droughts,low-temperature and snow disasters,which can cause more serious disaster losses in those regions.The regional distribution of ERs roughly reflects the laws of geographical distribution in type of disasters.

Key words: natural disaster, relief, emergency responses, spatial distribution, China