地理研究 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (2): 275-284.doi: 10.11821/yj2013020008

• 气候与自然灾害 • 上一篇    下一篇

地貌格局与流域侵蚀产沙过程关系定量分析——以黄河中游河龙区间为例

王计平1,2, 黄志霖3, 刘洋4, 许申来5, 卫伟1, 陈利顶1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京100085;
    2. 中国林业科学研究院国家林业局盐碱地研究中心, 北京 100091;
    3. 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 北京 100091;
    4. 盐城工学院环境科学与工程学院, 盐城 224051;
    5. 北京清华城市规划设计研究院环境与市政所, 北京 100085
  • 收稿日期:2012-05-17 修回日期:2012-10-10 出版日期:2013-02-10 发布日期:2013-02-10
  • 通讯作者: 陈利顶(1965- ),男,河南辉县人,研究员,博士生导师,主要从事景观生态学、土地利用变化的环境效应、水土保持和非点源污染控制研究。E-mail:liding@rcees.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:王计平(1978- ),男,山西保德人,博士,主要从事景观格局优化与生态过程模拟研究。E-mail:wjp_gis@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40925003,31100514);林业公益性行业科研专项(201004058);中国博士后科学基金项目(20100480365)

Quantitative analysis of the relationship between watershed topography and erosion-sediment processes:A case study of Hekou-Longmen section in middle Yellow River

WANG Jiping1,2, HUANG Zhilin3, LIU Yang4, XU Shenlai5, WEI Wei1, CHEN Liding1   

  1. 1. Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, CAS, Beijing 100085, China;
    2. Research Center of Saline and Alkali Land of State Forestry Administration, CAF, Beijing 100091, China;
    3. Research Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, CAF, Beijing 100091;
    4. School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051, Jiangsu, China;
    5. Beijng Tsinghua Urban Planning & Design Institure, Department of Environmental Techonlogy, Beijing 100085, China
  • Received:2012-05-17 Revised:2012-10-10 Online:2013-02-10 Published:2013-02-10

摘要: 以河龙区间42个流域为对象,在流域地貌格局信息提取和侵蚀产沙过程特征指标计算及其相互关系分析的基础上,探讨地貌格局对流域侵蚀产沙过程的影响。结果表明:①在河道系统水平,河流数量、长度等几何特征指标和河流分叉率(Rb12)、分级率(Rd32)、相邻级别间的河流长度比等形状特征指标与流域侵蚀模数显著相关;②在流域系统水平,坡度粗糙度、相对高差、圆度比、高长比是影响流域侵蚀产沙过程的主要指标,其中坡度粗糙度是最根本的解释变量;③各地貌格局因子间相互作用复杂,且对侵蚀过程的影响要强于泥沙输移过程,其通径分析模型对流域侵蚀模数、输沙模数和泥沙输移比变化的解释度分别为65%、33%和20%。这对正确认识影响流域侵蚀产沙过程的格局因素和建立准确的过程模型,具有重要参考价值。

关键词: 地貌格局, 过程, 侵蚀产沙, 河龙区间

Abstract: The patterns of topography and landform, defined as basic landscape elements in watershed, have important inpacts on soil erosion processes. In this paper, the watersheds based on 42 hydrological stations, located within the region from Hekouzhen to Longmen (Helong section) in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, were selected as the study area, and the relationship between watershed topography and erosion-sediment processes was analyzed by the correlation and path analysis based on acquisition of topographic features and estimation of soil erosion and sediment yield. The results showed that the number and length of streams and its total number at a given level were the main factors affecting the intensity of soil erosion, and the stream-length ratio, the ratio of bifurcation and stream order have a close relationship with the soil erosion modulus at the river channel level. However, at watershed level, slope roughness (Sp), watershed relative height difference (Rp), roundness ratio (Rc) and watershed valley length ratio (Rh) are the main topographical landscape indices that affect the spatial variation of soil and water loss, among them, slope roughness is the most fundamental and most important explanatory variable of all topographical landscape indices. The complex interaction among the indicators directly or indirectly affects the process of soil erosion and sediment yield. The path analysis model constructed with topographical factors could explain 65% of the variation for soil erosion modulus (EM), 33% of the variation for sediment transport modulus (SM), and 20% of the variation for sediment delivery ratio. These analysis and computation results are helpful to get a better understanding of the importance of topographic patterns and to build more accurate soil erosion process models.

Key words: geomorphology pattern, process, soil erosion and sediment, the Hekou-Longmen section