地理研究 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (3): 421-430.doi: 10.11821/yj2013030004

• 气候与生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

黄河下游滩区开封段土壤重金属空间分异规律

张鹏岩1,2, 秦明周1,2, 闫江虹2, 杨林2, 李瑾2, 孙超2, 陈龙2   

  1. 1. 河南大学资源与环境研究所, 开封475004;
    2. 河南大学环境与规划学院, 开封475004
  • 收稿日期:2012-02-13 修回日期:2012-09-19 出版日期:2013-03-10 发布日期:2013-03-10
  • 通讯作者: 秦明周(1965- ),河南郑州人,博士,教授,博士生导师。主要研究领域为土地资源管理与利用。E-mail:qinmz@henu.edu.cn E-mail:qinmz@henu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:张鹏岩(1983- ),吉林蛟河人,博士生。研究方向为资源利用与环境保护。E-mail:pengyanzh@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41171439);河南大学资源与环境研究所项目

Spatial variation of soil heavy metals in the beach of Lower Yellow River:A case study in Kaifeng Section

ZHANG Pengyan1,2, QIN Mingzhou1,2, Yan Jianghong2, YANG Lin2, LI Jin2, SUN Chao2, CHEN Long2   

  1. 1. Institute of Resource and Environment, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, Henan, China;
    2. College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004, Henan, China
  • Received:2012-02-13 Revised:2012-09-19 Online:2013-03-10 Published:2013-03-10

摘要: 对黄河下游滩区开封段及滩外土壤采样48个,按照土壤化学分析方法,对铅(Pb)、铬(Cr)、汞(Hg)、砷(As)和镉(Cd)5种重金属进行分析,采用单因子污染指数、普通克里格法和相关分析对研究区土壤重金属含量特征、污染状况和分布特征进行了计算。结果表明:①研究区土壤5种重金属Pb、Cr、Hg、As和Cd含量就平均值而言,Cr的平均含量最大,Pb、Hg的平均含量最小。Pb、Cr、Hg、As和Cd4种重金属元素的变异系数在0.13~0.28之间,属于中等变异强度,Hg变异系数较大,Hg的空间差异相对较大;②重金属元素Pb、Cr、Hg、As、Cd之间具有较强的线性关系,可能具有共同来源——水沙输入;③主要污染元素为Hg、As、Pb,其中Pb的污染为中度污染且范围较广,而As和汞Hg构成三级轻度污染。Cr和Cd在各村间变化不大,Cr,Cd没有构成污染,且Cd是全部清洁表现出污染没有积累;④土壤各重金属元素的空间分布特征在研究区内上下段之间分异明显,上段呈清洁状态,中段有少量污染,下段表现出明显富集的分布状态。

关键词: 黄河滩区, 土壤重金属, 相关分析, 空间分异, 开封

Abstract: In this paper we collected 48 soil samples in the surface levels of soil from 0-20 cm inside and outside the Yellow River beach in Kaifeng City.Based on the standard analysis methods of soil chemical composition,five heavy metals contents,including Lead(Pb),Chromium(Cr),Mercury(Hg),Arsenic(As) and Cadmium(Cd) in soil are analyzed.Three different models of single-factor pollution index,Ordinary Kriging and correlation analysis are adapted respectively,to quantificationally study soil heavy metals contents,and also to calculate their pollutants and the spatial distribution in the study area.Eventually we obtain the following results.(1) In terms of the average content level of the five heavy metals,the average content of Cr is the highest,while those of Pb and Hg are the lowest.However,the spatial variation analysis used by the coefficients of variation demonstrated that the spatial variety of Hg content is the largest for its large variety coefficient,and the other 4 heavy metals(Pb,Cr,As and Cd) are at the similar medium levels(0.13-0.28).(2) There is a strong linear relationship between the heavy metal Pb,Cr,Hg,As,and Cd,which implies that the 5 soil heavy metals may have a same origin of the Yellow River sediment and water input.(3) The main pollution elements are Hg,As and Pb,among them,the pollution degree of Pb is moderate and its pollution range is relatively wide;As and Hg are at the third level of light pollution degree.Both Cr and Cd contents,which have not been polluted,have little difference from village to village.Cd content is at a very low level without pollutant accumulation.(4) The spatial distribution of soil heavy metals is significantly different from the upper to lower beach within the study area.The upper beach soil is relatively clean,and the middle beach is lightly polluted;while the lower beach soil shows a significant concentration of heavy metals.

Key words: Yellow River beach region, soil heavy metal, correlation analysis, spatial difference, Kaifeng City