地理研究 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (3): 431-440.doi: 10.11821/yj2013030005

• 气候与生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

自然灾害承险体的分类技术与方案

王成金1,2, 金凤君1, 何丹3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    2. 路易斯安那州立大学地理与人类学系, 美国巴图鲁日70803;
    3. 北京联合大学应用文理学院城市科学系, 北京100191
  • 收稿日期:2012-05-10 修回日期:2012-11-20 出版日期:2013-03-10 发布日期:2013-03-10
  • 作者简介:王成金(1975-),男,山东沂水人,副研究员,博士,主要研究方向为经济地理和区域发展。E-mail:cjwang@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家科技支撑计划项目(2008BAK50B05-01);中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向性项目(KZCX2-YW-Q03-06);国家自然科学基金项目(41171108)

Identification and classification program of the bearing body of the natural hazards

WANG Chengjin1,2, JIN Fengjun1, HE Dan3   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Department of Geography and Anthropology, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge 70803, USA;
    3. College of Arts and Science of Beijing Union University, Beijing 100191, China
  • Received:2012-05-10 Revised:2012-11-20 Online:2013-03-10 Published:2013-03-10

摘要: 自然灾害风险与防灾减灾研究的基础是灾区承险体的基本认知,如何对数量庞大、种类繁多的承险体进行科学分类是一直尚未解决的科学问题。在简要回顾国内外研究现状的基础上,本文分析了承险体识别与分类的几个关键问题,包括承险体的基础概念界定、关键问题厘清、分类原则等,根据统计方法、功能用途、基本属性和表现形态的差异,设计了由承险体集、承险体项、承险体类和承险体形式等4个层级组成的分类体系。按照这种分类体系,对区域自然灾害承险体进行了系统划分,形成了7个承险体集、19个承险体项、59个承险体类和若干承险体形式的分类方案。同时,对各类承险体与自然灾害的关系进行了分析,包括容易受害灾种和受灾方式。本研究丰富了自然灾害的理论研究,有利于自然灾害风险评估和防灾减灾工作的开展。

关键词: 自然灾害, 承险体, 分类体系, 分类方案

Abstract: The study of the hazard-bearing body is the basic research for the risk assessment of the natural disasters.In particular,its classification technology and program are of great significance to prevent and reduce the disaster.The hazard-bearing body means the various objects which have close relationship with the human to confront the natural disaster and loss,including not only the physical objects of economy and assets and non-physical objects of the social-culture,but also the ecology and resources objects related closely with human living environment.We consider the physical assets should focus on the specialty of private,and the hazard-bearing body should contain the industrial,agricultural production and other economic activities.Furthermore,the resources and environment which are of great significance to the people's living and development should be contained in the hazard-bearing body.Based on the clarification on these key problems,we propose four fundamental principles to identify and classify the hazard-bearing body,which consider that the immovable property is the core and that the movable property is the supplementary.Then,based on the differentiation of the statistical method,function,basic property and manifestation,we designed the four-grade classification system of the hazard-bearing body,including cluster,item,type and manifestation of the hazard-bearing body.According to this classification system,we identified all the hazard-bearing bodies into 7 clusters,19 items,59 types and many manifestations,which formed the classification program of the hazard-bearing body.Finally,we analyzed the relationship between the type of hazard-bearing body and the type of natural disaster and influence form.The research results in this paper establish the foundation to investigate the hazard-bearing bodies and estimate their vulnerability,and provide the guidance to carry out the work to prevent and reduce natural disasters.However,the analysis of the classification of hazard-bearing body in this paper is still rough.In particular,there are so many hazard-bearing bodies and maybe some of them could not be involved into the discussion in this paper.Analysis of this paper also shows that more detailed research on this topic should be presented.

Key words: natural hazard, hazard-bearing body, classification system, classification program