地理研究 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (5): 870-880.doi: 10.11821/yj2013050010

• 城市与区域经济 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京社会治安公共安全空间结构及其影响机制——以城市110警情为例

李业锦1,2, 朱红1   

  1. 1. 首都师范大学资源环境与旅游学院, 北京100048;
    2. 北京师范大学资源学院, 北京100875
  • 收稿日期:2012-06-18 修回日期:2012-10-29 出版日期:2013-05-10 发布日期:2013-05-10
  • 作者简介:李业锦(1977- ),男,海南澄迈人,讲师,博士,中国地理学会会员,主要从事宜居城市、经济区位论等研究。E-mail:plansky@qq.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金青年项目(41001105);国家科技支撑项(2012BAH33B03、2012BAH33B05)

Spatial distribution and influencing mechanism of social and public security:An urban security spatial analysis based on from city crime alarm data

LI Yejin1,2, ZHU Hong1   

  1. 1. College of Resource Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China;
    2. College of Resources Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2012-06-18 Revised:2012-10-29 Online:2013-05-10 Published:2013-05-10

摘要: 维护社会安全与稳定是城市公共安全研究的重要课题,随着社会经济转型和城市空间结构变化的影响,北京市的社会治安公共安全呈现出明显的空间规律和特点。本文基于2006-2011年北京市110警情治安数据,结合GIS的空间密度分析方法,刻画北京社会治安公共安全的空间格局,并进一步探讨其空间分异机制。研究发现:①北京社会治安公共安全状况明显改善,犯罪空间形成小集聚多分散的演化特征,形成了多个警情高发的集聚区;②北京公共安全空间变化具有明显的偏向性和差异性,形成西北—东南的极化现象。③不同的犯罪类型其空间分布特征也不同,不同的犯罪类型都存在明显的、各具特色的空间分异特征。④从社会治安公共安全空间分异机制来看,经济功能区、人居环境、交通、流动人口和居民居住环境安全感等要素差异会引发不同的犯罪类型和形成不同的犯罪集聚区。本研究可为首都社会治安防控的空间管理策略和城市公共安全政策制定提供参考。

关键词: 城市公共安全, 社会治安, 空间结构, 影响机制, 北京市

Abstract: Urban public security space is not only one of the main topics in urban geography, but also a major concern of the governments and urban residents.Urban social security is a vital part of urban public security.Based on Beijing crime alarm(110)data of public security cases(2006-2011),the paper empirically uses the kernel method to analyze spatial distribution and evolution of urban social and public security and then brings forward the influencing mechanism of urban public security space in Beijing.Empirical results show that the trend of urban social and public security in Beijing has become better,and there are obvious crime spatial clusters in Beijing.Furthermore,spatial changes of urban social and public security in Beijing have visible inequality,are direction-oriented,and have a phenomenon of northwest-southeast polarization from 2006 to 2011.In addition,different types of crime are spatially featured by distinct spatial aggregation.Finally,the paper analyzes the influence of economic industrial district,human settlements,transport,floating population and residents'perception of living environment safety on urban public safety spatial differentiation.These empirical findings have important policy implications for urban public safety policy-makers.

Key words: urban social and public security, spatial structure, spatial evaluative characteristic, nuclear density analysis, Beijing city