地理研究 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (5): 881-890.doi: 10.11821/yj2013050011

• 城市与区域经济 • 上一篇    下一篇

散居族群婚姻圈的空间结构演化及其形成机制——贵州坡帽仡佬族案例

杜芳娟1, 朱竑2   

  1. 1. 贵州师范大学中国南方喀斯特研究院, 贵阳550001;
    2. 华南师范大学文化产业与文化地理研究中心, 广州510613
  • 收稿日期:2012-06-20 修回日期:2013-02-13 出版日期:2013-05-10 发布日期:2013-05-10
  • 通讯作者: 朱竑,教授,博士生导师。E-mail:eeszhh@mail.sysu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:杜芳娟(1977- ),女,贵州务川人,副教授,博士,主要研究文化地理与旅游地理。E-mail:dfj521@sina.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41101135,40961006);贵州省教育厅高校人文社科研究项目(09JD007)

The evolution and mechanism of spatial structure of the marriage circle of ethnic groups in scattered places:A case study of Gelao minority in Pomao village,Guizhou province

DU Fangjuan1, ZHU Hong2   

  1. 1. Institute of South China Karst, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001, China;
    2. Cultural Industry and Cultural Geography Research Center;South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
  • Received:2012-06-20 Revised:2013-02-13 Online:2013-05-10 Published:2013-05-10

摘要: 婚姻圈作为民族社会建构的重要机制,以及族群认同的表现形式和民族文化传承载体,对其现况及未来的研究关乎散居族群的社会经济和文化发展大计。采用口述史、深度访谈法及文本分析的方法研究发现:贵州坡帽仡佬族的婚姻圈经历了族内异地通婚——族内本地通婚与近邻异族通婚——族内本地、近邻异族与异地异族通婚并存等几个阶段的演化。在传统农业社会,散居族群经历了居住、社会和教育多重隔离,通婚受族群性影响,以异地族内通婚为主;而在长期散杂居过程中,族际之间的长期接触融合,其婚姻圈又产生空间近邻性效应,异族通婚开始出现;中国社会转型期及经济一体化使散居族群的婚姻场域发生急剧变化,由此导致远距离通婚,族群性与空间近邻性效应开始减弱。坡帽仡佬族的婚姻圈演化反映了散居族群与主体社会关系的建构过程,但散居族群尚无独立发展的力量。当随着族群内部原有稳定性的打破,族群语言、文化习俗如何保留,族群认同如何维系等都将面临很大的挑战。通过婚姻圈变化之研究视角,关注全球化影响下少数族群文化的保护和发扬问题,是文化扩散和文化整合研究领域新的尝试。

关键词: 散居, 仡佬族, 婚姻圈, 空间结构, 贵州坡帽

Abstract: Since marriage circle acts as an important mechanism in building ethnic society,an expression of ethnic identity and a medium in preserving ethnic culture,research on its current and future status is of considerable significance to the ethnic group's social,economic and cultural development.Employing the methods of oral history,in-depth interview and textual analysis,this study indicates that the spatial structure of marriage circle of Pomao Gelao minority has experienced the following three stages:in-marriage between different places;the coexistence of in-marriage in their own village and out-marriage with their neighboring villages;and the coexistence of in-marriage within the same village and out-marriage among different neighboring villages and even long-distance places.The reasons for the changes in spatial structure of the marriage circle's structure are as follows.In an agricultural society,the scattered ethnic groups experienced residential,social and educational segregation.Thus their marriage circles were influenced mainly by their ethnicity.When the follow-up effect of segregation still plays a part in marriage,during the long and gradual process of population de-centering and contacting with other ethnic groups,their marriage was influenced by space proximity;and with China's great social transition and economic integration,great changes have taken place in the ethnic groups'marriage fields.As a result, their marriages have not been so strongly influenced by ethnicity and space proximity as before.This paper indicates that the evolution of Pomao Gelao's marriage circle reflects a process of setting up social relationship between a spatially scattered ethnic group,other social groups and the mainstream society,and that the scattered ethnic group has not yet had the ability of independent development vis-à-vis the mainstream society.Consequently,when their stable marriage's structure is broken up,the ethnic group will have to face an immense challenge in preserving ethnic language,customs and culture,as well as maintaining their ethnic identity.With a case study of the changes in marriage circle,this paper arouses our attention in the preservation and development of ethnic minorities'culture,which can be seen as a novel attempt in the research of cultural diffusion and cultural integration

Key words: scattered ethnic group, Gelao, marriage circle, spatial structure, Pomao in Guizhou Province