地理研究 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (5): 942-951.doi: 10.11821/yj2013050016

• 旅游与聚落地理 • 上一篇    下一篇

全新世中期青海海东地区聚落选址与环境解读

袁薇薇, 韩茂莉   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学院, 北京100871
  • 收稿日期:2012-07-12 修回日期:2013-01-25 出版日期:2013-05-10 发布日期:2013-05-10
  • 作者简介:袁薇薇(1986-),女,河北张家口人,博士研究生,主要研究历史时期环境变迁与环境考古。E-mail:susie-yuan@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(40971114);教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(08JJD770089)

The explanation on the selection of settlements and environment in Haidong Prefecture, Qinghai Province during the mid-Holocene

YUAN Weiwei, HAN Maoli   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2012-07-12 Revised:2013-01-25 Online:2013-05-10 Published:2013-05-10

摘要: 依托GIS技术,对全新世中期海东地区河湟谷地的聚落选址特征进行分析,指出马家窑文化、齐家文化、卡约—唐汪文化与辛店文化时期的聚落均对海拔2000~2200 m的高程区间具有强烈的选择倾向,这一首选海拔区间标识了全新世中期河湟谷地水热条件优良的森林与草原植被过渡地带。齐家文化之后的卡约—唐汪文化与辛店文化以2000~2200 m海拔高程区间为核心,分别向较高海拔山区与较低海拔河谷地带扩展生存空间,且聚落分布重心发生迁移,聚落聚集程度降低。4000 aBP前后气候开始转为干冷,导致高海拔山区森林退化与河谷水热条件变化,是齐家文化以后的人类文明对环境的适应方式发生变化的主要原因。

关键词: 聚落, 选址, 环境, 全新世中期, 青海, 河湟谷地

Abstract: The paper focuses on the selection of settlement sites in Huangshui River and Yellow River valleys located in Haidong Prefecture during the mid-Holocene with the aid of GIS technology.The result shows that the settlement sites belonging to Majiayao,Qijia, Kayue-Tangwang and Xindian cultures were mainly distributed at an altitude of 2000-2200 m asl.,which coincided with the transitional zone between forest and grassland,and the region with the best farming condition.After Qijia Culture,Kayue-Tangwang Culture extended from the core of 2000-2200 m asl to the higher direction towards hilly and mountainous areas, while Xindian Culture extended from the same core to a lower direction towards the valley area.In comparison of distribution of the settlement sites belonging to Kayue-Tangwang and Xindian cultures with that of the former culture,the center of gravity shifted in different directions,and the aggregation degree diminished.The climate tended to be dry and cold around 4000 aBP,which led to forestland degradation in higher mountainous areas and the farming condition change in the lower valley area.This changed the mode of the environment adapted by the people after Qijia Culture.

Key words: settlements, site selection, environment, mid-Holocene, Qinghai Province, Hehuang valley