地理研究 ›› 2013, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (6): 1084-1094.doi: 10.11821/yj2013060012

• 交通与区域经济 • 上一篇    下一篇

中美航空客运网络层次结构和地域系统对比分析

叶倩, 吴殿廷, 戴特奇, 郭谦, 鲍捷   

  1. 北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院, 北京100875
  • 收稿日期:2012-08-23 修回日期:2013-03-25 出版日期:2013-06-10 发布日期:2013-06-10
  • 通讯作者: 吴殿廷(1958- ),男,辽宁大连人,教授,博士生导师,主要从事区域规划和旅游规划研究。E-mail:wudianting@bnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:叶倩(1986- ),女,河北唐山人,硕士,美国北卡罗来纳大学交换留学生,专业方向为人文地理。E-mail:yeqian_tm051@126.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(41140007)

A comparative analysis of hierarchy and regional system of domestic air passenger transport network between China and USA

YE Qian, WU Dianting, DAI Teqi, GUO Qian, BAO Jie   

  1. School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2012-08-23 Revised:2013-03-25 Online:2013-06-10 Published:2013-06-10

摘要: 美国民航1978年彻底市场化以来已经历30多年的发展,航空网络趋于成熟。我国民航也在经历市场化改革,机场属地化完成至今已近10年,运量快速增长、高铁建设等因素正剧烈地影响着网络演变。对比中美两国航空网络有利于判断我国航线网络和机场体系的演变趋势,对于我国民航发展具有借鉴意义。以中国大陆地区和美国本土48个州作为研究区,运用交通地理信息系统和VBA等技术,从绝对联系和首位联系两个角度,对当前中美两国航空客运网络层次结构和地域系统进行分析与对比。研究发现:中国航空客运网络已表现出一定的轴辐体系,但一级枢纽较少、客运压力过大,且航空枢纽重东南、轻中西;美国航空客运网络的轴辐体系已趋向完善,各大枢纽和重要城市之间的内部空间联系非常密切。进而,提出了一些政策性建议,以期对我国航空客运网络未来的空间发展形式和方向提供借鉴。

关键词: 航空客运网络, 层次结构, 地域系统, 轴辐体系, 中国, 美国

Abstract: Geography of air transportation is one of the youngest branches of geography.As the hub-and-spoke system becomes mature in the United States of America(USA)and China's air transportation and network are developing rapidly in recent years,modes and overall efficiency of air transport network have drawn attention of geographers and become a research focus.Over three decades has passed since the airline deregulation of USA in 1978. America's air transport network has been well developed since then.China's civil aviation is also experiencing market-oriented reforms.Around ten years ago,China's Civil Aviation Authority announced the achievement of airport localization.Recently China's air passenger flow is growing rapidly and its air transport network is changing due to factors such as construction of high-speed railway.It is helpful for estimating trends of China's future air network and airport system to compare air transport networks between China and USA.This paper aims to compare differences of domestic air transport networks between the two nations,explain them,figure out problems in China's domestic air transport network,and thus learn and draw lessons from the USA and make decisions accordingly;takes mainland China and 48 states of the USA as study areas and Transportation Geographic Information System and VBA as techniques to analyze and compare the differences of spatial pattern of domestic air passenger transport network between China and USA,including analysis of absolute related intensity,dominant flow and geographical regions.It is found that China's air transport network has already shown some hub-and-spoke structure,but most hubs are located in southeast China while northwest suffers from shortage of hubs.Beijing,Shanghai and Guangzhou serve as main hubs,while Kunming,Urumqi,Chengdu and Xi'an serve as auxiliary hubs.A limited number of main hubs leads to huge pressure of air passenger flow. Moreover,the role China's four auxiliary hubs that play a critical part in the whole network needs to be significantly strengthened.In contrast,hub-and-spoke system in the USA is approaching excellent and enhanced inter-linkages among large hubs and major cities.Finally, suggestions are put forward to provide reference to future spatial growth and trends of China's air passenger transport network.

Key words: air passenger transport network, hierarchy, regional system, hub-and-spoke system, China, USA