地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (5): 803-816.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201405001

• 论文 •    下一篇

生态补偿的地理学特征及内涵研究

刘春腊1,2, 刘卫东1, 陆大道1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2013-05-07 修回日期:2013-10-29 出版日期:2014-05-10 发布日期:2014-05-10
  • 通讯作者: 刘卫东,E-mail:liuwd@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:liuwd@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:刘春腊(1985- ),男,湖南衡阳人,博士研究生,研究方向为经济地理与区域发展。E-mail:liuchunla111@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41125005)

A study of the geographical features and implications of eco-compensation

LIU Chunla1,2, LIU Weidong1, LU Dadao1   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences andNatural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2013-05-07 Revised:2013-10-29 Online:2014-05-10 Published:2014-05-10

摘要: 地理学以环境—社会—人类动态的综合思维,以区域综合、区域间的相互关系、尺度间的相互转换等系统研究地球表层的性质和运动规律,“人—地”地域系统是其研究核心。生态补偿是一个典型的地理学研究命题,具有“人—地”地域系统的半开放性、非稳定性以及或然性特征。本文分析了生态补偿作为地理学研究命题的一般特征及其内涵。对于生态补偿是一个地理学研究命题的判断,依据在于自然地域系统厘定了生态补偿参与主体的基本关系、经济地理格局决定了生态补偿的空间差异、地域人文环境影响了生态补偿政策的制定及其补偿形式、地理学方法为生态补偿提供了技术与平台。区域是解读生态补偿问题的突破口,区域结构是制定生态补偿政策的重要参考、区域发展外部性是开展生态补偿的科学依据、地理要素资源的区域权属是确定生态补偿主客体的依据,生态补偿研究具有“区域—差异—尺度”的地理学分析范式。生态补偿的地理学特征表现在区域性、差异性、综合性、动态性等方面。

关键词: 生态补偿, 地理学, 特征, 内涵, &ldquo, 人&mdash, 地&rdquo, 地域系统

Abstract: Geography studies the nature and movement law of earth surface in a systematic way that involves perspectives of regional differentiation, regional interactions, a synthesis of environmental, societal and human dynamics, and interdependence between spatial scales. The discipline takes human-land territorial system (HLTS) as its hard core of studies. This paper argues that eco-compensation is a typical geographical issue and presents similar features of the HLTS, such as semi-opening, instability and random. Based on such an argument, the paper examines the geographical features and implications of eco-compensation. First, the physical side of the HLTS determines the fundamental relationships between different stakeholders in eco-compensation;second, patterns of economic geography play a critical role in regional differences of eco-compensation;third, regional cultural and institutional environment affects the formation and implementation of eco-compensation policies and measures;and fourth, geographical methods provide techniques for formulating eco-compensation. The paper suggests that region is a key to studying eco-compensation issues, regional structure is a major reference for formulating eco-compensation policies, externality is the scientific basis to carry out eco-compensation, and ownership of geographical elements and resources is a key factor to distinguish different stakeholders in eco-compensation. As such, eco-compensation studies should take a geographical research paradigm of "region-differentiation-scale". In short, the geographical features of eco-compensation can be best manifested by such terms as regionalization, spatial differentiation, comprehensiveness, and dynamics.

Key words: eco-compensation, geography, features, implications, human-land territorial system