地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (5): 817-830.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201405002

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

环境外部性与污染企业城市内空间分布特征——基于深圳污染企业的实证分析

周沂1,2, 贺灿飞1,2, 王锐3, 王洁玉4   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院, 北京100871;
    2. 北京大学-林肯研究院城市发展与土地政策研究中心, 北京100871;
    3. 美国加州大学洛杉矶分校城市规划系, 洛杉矶, 美国;
    4. 北京大学城市规划与设计学院, 深圳518055
  • 收稿日期:2013-01-29 修回日期:2013-11-30 出版日期:2014-05-10 发布日期:2014-05-10
  • 通讯作者: 贺灿飞(1972- ),博士,教授,主要从事经济地理、产业与区域经济研究。E-mail:hecanfei@urban.pku.edu.cn E-mail:hecanfei@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:周沂(1988- ),硕士,主要从事区域经济学,环境与区域经济发展等。E-mail:zhouyi308@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271130)

Environmental externalities and the location of polluting firm in intra-city:A case study of Shenzhen, China

ZHOU Yi1,2, HE Canfei1,2, WANG Rui3, WANG Jieyu4   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    2. Peking University-LincolnInstitute Center for Urban Development and Land Policy, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China;
    3 Luskin School ofPublic Affairs, University of California at Los Angeles, CA, USA;
    4. School of Urban Planning and Design, Shenzhen 518055, Guangdong, China
  • Received:2013-01-29 Revised:2013-11-30 Online:2014-05-10 Published:2014-05-10

摘要: 随着城市生态环境的恶化,发达地区环境管理力度不断加强,使得污染企业的空间分布表现出强烈的环境容量制约性和政府规制主导性。为应对这种制约与规制,在城市内部,污染企业向城市边界和环境准入门槛低的区域迁移,使得污染企业空间分布及其所形成的城市污染格局更加复杂。利用2007 年深圳市污染源普查数据,通过OLS和稳健回归分别探讨了废水、废气和固体废弃物污染企业环境外部性及其城市内空间分布特征。研究发现:深圳废水与固体废弃物污染严重企业具有明显地靠近城市外围边界但远离香港、经济特区分布的特征,以邻为壑的污染转嫁将辖区内的环境负外部性扩展到邻近城市,以避免对本城区的污染。同时,废水排放较多的污染企业也有明显的靠近城市环境功能较低的外流河分布的特征。企业所有制性质、经营时间等在一定程度上影响企业的排污能力,进而影响污染企业的空间分布。另外,不同排污类型的企业空间分布也具有显著的差异。本研究对于转型期正确制定城市产业结构空间调整政策,合理引导经济环境协调发展,尤其是避免跨界流域河道等成为转移负外部性的通道具有重要启示。

关键词: 环境外部性, 空间分布, 污染企业, 深圳

Abstract: With the rapid development of urban economy, China's urban environmental quality has become a global concern. Based on the data from the 2007 survey of pollution sources in Shenzhen, this paper explored the role played by environmental externalities in the intra-city space distribution of polluting enterprises. We found that polluting enterprises were located close to regions with lower environmental costs. Water and solid polluting enterprises were located significantly close to the city boundary but away from Hong Kong and Shenzhen Special Economic Zone so that they would not contaminate the central city and expand the negative environmental externalities to adjacent cities. Different polluting enterprises have significantly different space distribution characteristics. Water polluting enterprises were likely to be located near outflow rivers, which pollutes the cross-border river basins even more severely. Polluting enterprises were not likely to be located close to the transportation infrastructures because of the environmental costs. Ownership and operation time of enterprises have impact on pollution abatement to a certain extent. Therefore, the adjustment of the industrial layout in the transitional economy should take into account the integrity of the regional environment so that cross-border rivers would not become victims of negative externalities. This study sheds light not only on the policies of industrial structure adjustment but also on the location theory, which enlightens coordinated development of urban economy and environment.

Key words: environmental externality, spatial distribution, polluting enterprises, Shenzhen