地理研究 ›› 1986, Vol. 5 ›› Issue (4): 68-77.doi: 10.11821/yj1986040009

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

喀斯特地貌演化与喀斯特含水层特性

宋林华   

  1. 中国科学院、国家计划委员会地理研究所
  • 收稿日期:1986-03-20 修回日期:1986-07-12 出版日期:1986-12-15 发布日期:1986-12-15

EVOLUTION PROCESS OF KARST GEOMORPHOLOGY AND THE PROPERTY OF KARST AQUIFER

Song Linhua   

  1. Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences and State Planning Commission of The People's Republic of China
  • Received:1986-03-20 Revised:1986-07-12 Online:1986-12-15 Published:1986-12-15

摘要: 本文根据喀斯特含水层的结构、喀斯特地貌发育的动力过程,探讨不同的喀斯特地貌演化阶段及其相应的喀斯特含水层特征。

Abstract: The karst geomorphology and the property of karst aquifer are the internal and external reflections of karstif ication process. In different stages of karst geomorphological development, the. property of karst aquifer is greatly different.The karst aquifer is usually made up with the pores, fractures, solutional fissures, conduits and caverns which can contain the groundwater in the carbonate rocks.The pore-fracture water and the solutional fissure water recharge the conduit and cavern waters. All the flows constitute the underground karst drainage system in the carbonate rock.The corrosion and mechanical erosion including scouring and abrasion of the water against the carbonate rock are the main dynamic factors. The intensity of corrosion is predominantly controlled by the rate of water circulation and the CO2 content in the water. The strength of karst geomorphological development in the tropic area with the abundant rainfall and vigorous bio-actities is higher than that in the temperate and cold areas. The mechanic erosion of water is chiefly influenced by the velocity and sediments of the wate. The total denudation amount is equal to the sum of chemical and physical denudation amounts.The relationship between the evolution process of karst geomorphology and the property of karst aquifer in the South Dushan, Guizhou, has been demonstrated as an example.(1)In the stage of karst funnel and depression development, the laminar porofracture flows in the limestone aquifer predominates and the solutional fissure flow stars developing. (2)in the Fengcong-de-pression stage, as the solutional fissure and conduit flows have been well developed,the karst aquifer is characterized by the coexistence of the laminar and turbulent flows; (3)in the fenglin basin stage(and fenglin plain), the groundwater level approaches to the basin surface beneath which the relative homogeneous aquifer with the network of the solutional fissures has been formed, while the homo-conduit or cave flow has been developed well in the limestone block between two basins in the direction of groundwater flow; (4)in the karst spring-returned stage, the similar fengcong-depression-canyon landscape has been developed. The rate of the corrosion downward is lower than that of surface river as the related drainage base. The karstification downward in the regions far from the related base is not very strong or doesn't appear,in which the property of karst aquifer in the former stage remained. In the areas near the drainage base, the homogeneous fissure network has developed near the old drainage base, the homogeneous fisure network has developed near the old drainage base, but the very homogeneous conduit and cave flows hanging above the new base and with high hydraulic gradient have developed in the limestone block between the old and new-drainage bases.