地理研究 ›› 1995, Vol. 14 ›› Issue (3): 14-25.doi: 10.11821/yj1995030002

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国近期自然灾害程度的区域特征*

刘燕华, 李钜章, 赵跃龙   

  1. 中国科学院、国家计划委员会地理研究所 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:1995-01-13 修回日期:1995-05-20 出版日期:1995-09-15 发布日期:1995-09-15
  • 基金资助:
    * 国家自然科学基金

REGIONAL CHARACCTERS OF NATURAL DISATER IN THE LAST YEARSIN CHINA

Liu Yanhua, Li Juzhang, Zhao Yuelong   

  1. Institute of Geography, Chinese Acadmy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101
  • Received:1995-01-13 Revised:1995-05-20 Online:1995-09-15 Published:1995-09-15

摘要: 本文通过对中国近期灾情的分析,探讨自然灾害区域评价的指标分类和评价指标体系,讨论中国灾情程度的区域特征,文中首先对绝对灾情、相对灾情、绝对灾情变率和相对灾情变率这四项程度进行了分类,随后依单位面积和单位人口与灾情的关系进行了人均灾损、灾损模数、受灾人口模数、受灾面积模数指标的分类。运用上述八项指标,对中国近年灾害程度区域特征进行分析结果表明,中国东部地区灾情最严重,且集中于黄河下游、淮河流域和长江下游区;从历年灾情程度的情况分析结果认为,绝对灾情指标>4.0及相对灾情指标>30%,是目前衡量中国省级灾害承受能力的极限指标。

关键词: 灾害程度, 指标, 区域特征

Abstract: Natural disaster is a dynamic phenomenon varying from region to region and changing over time.The impacts of disasters to a region is usually described by the extent of disaster affecting the region in general,and also by the grading of disaster for particular purposes.This paper deals with the regional characters of natural disaster of China by using information from l989 to 1993.It aims at analyzing interactions between disaster and regional development,identifying indicators used as tools for decision making in disaster reduction,and discussing regional differences of disaster impacts in China.The paper fiistly reviews information available to describe disasters,and then dibcusses the importance of differefit items of information in relation to various types of disasters.Based on the sigfiificance and the implication,an indicator system of disaster impacts is established.This system covers 8 basiic indicators as:disaster losses in absolute sense; disaster losses in relativp sense;fluctuation in absolute sense;fluctuation in relative sense;disaster losses per capita;disaster losses per unit area;affected population per unit area;and affected land per unit area.In addition,the grading systems for each indicator are also developed.Adopting the indicator systein of ditqaster impacts,the paper concluded that the easternpart of China is the seriously affected area by natural disasters, which is the well developed area in terms of economy,and the niost populated area of China.Within the easterii part of China,some regions:uch as the lower reach of the Yellow River,the Haihe River Basin,and the lower reach of the Yangzi River siiffer tremcndously from natural disasters in the last few years.With,regards to the sustaining capacity to Withstand disasters,the paper emphasized that aregion could not be self-reliant when disaster impact indictor above 4.0 in terms of absolute disaste losses,or up to 30% in terins of relative disaster losses.

Key words: Regional character, Disaster inipact gradirig, Indicator system

PACS: 

  • P46