地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (1): 43-56.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201401005

• 区域发展 • 上一篇    下一篇

1990-2009年中国区域能源效率时空分异特征与成因

王强1,2,3,4, 樊杰2,3, 伍世代1   

  1. 1. 福建师范大学地理科学学院, 福州350007;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    3. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 北京100101;
    4. 中国科学院大学, 北京100049
  • 收稿日期:2012-09-19 修回日期:2013-01-03 出版日期:2014-01-10 发布日期:2014-01-10
  • 通讯作者: 樊杰(1961- ),男,陕西西安人,博士生导师,研究员,主要从事区域发展问题研究。E-mail:fanj@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:fanj@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:王强(1982- ),男,河北成安人,讲师,主要从事区域可持续发展与规划研究。E-mail:wangqiang_1102@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41201171);福建省科技厅公益类科研院所专项项目(2011R1037-1)

Spatial-temporal variation of regional energy efficiency and its causes in China, 1990-2009

WANG Qiang1,2,3,4, FAN Jie2,3, WU Shidai1   

  1. 1. School of Geographical Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    4. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2012-09-19 Revised:2013-01-03 Online:2014-01-10 Published:2014-01-10
  • Contact: 10.11821/dlyj201401005 E-mail:fanj@igsnrr.ac.cn

摘要: 本文通过对1990-2009年包括台湾省在内的31个省、市、自治区能源效率进行测算,揭示其时空分异特征及其影响因素,并进一步提出未来我国能源效率提升的重点政策方向。研究结果显示:① 20世纪90年代以来,中国大陆地区能源效率整体上处于中等水平(远低于台湾地区),呈升高趋势,但变化幅度小。② 中国大陆地区能源效率提升以要素大规模投入而产生的外部经济效益为主导驱动,相比之下,科技进步并不是经济产出增长的主要来源,但其发展水平的快速提升对能源效率改善幅度具有重要的推动作用。③ 从空间分异规律来看,东、中部地区能源效率整体高于西部地区,东北地区逐渐由能源效率最低层级升至仅次于东部地区、略高于中部地区的第二层级;纯技术效率按照由高到低依次是东部地区、中部地区、东北地区、西部地区;规模效率分异明显,东部地区最高、中部地区次之,西部地区规模效率较低,东北地区受国家市场需求影响,长期处于效率最低水平。④ 在国家、省域两种不同尺度下,同一因素在两个尺度上对能源效率影响的适宜性、贡献率存在较大差异。⑤ 未来在提升中国大陆地区能源效率过程中,应正确认识我国产业结构组合、能源市场化改革以及对外贸易发展等三个重要问题。

关键词: 区域能源效率, DEA模型, 时空分异, 成因, 中国

Abstract: This paper used DEA model and correlation method to calculate the energy efficiency of 31 regions including Taiwan from 1990 to 2009, and revealed the spatial-temporal variation. It also testified empirically the relations between energy efficiency and the industrial structure, the energy consumption structure, the technical progress and the degree of opening-up. Furthermore, the paper put forward the direction of policy-making for improving regional energy efficiency. The values of this paper was that it had provided advanced analytical tools and a research platform for Chinese economic researchers, also offered policies basis for the governments. The results showed: (1) as a whole, since the 1990s,there was a slow-growing trend of energy efficiency in Chinese mainland, but it was still at the middle level and lower than Taiwan. (2) As stimulus, large-scale investment of production factors played an even greater role in promoting energy efficiency than the progress of science and technology, but the latter had a greater impact on the extent of energy efficiency improvement. (3) In term of spatial differentiation, the energy efficiency was high and stable in the eastern region, but it was low and decreasing in the western region. Meanwhile, there was an increasing trend in the central and northeastern regions, especially, the northeastern region showed significant growing characteristics. According to the sequence from high to low, technical efficiency of the eastern region was the highest, and the central region took the second place, the northeastern region was the third one, and the western region was the lowest one. Scale efficiency differentiated obviously, the sequence from high to low could be given as below: the eastern region, the central region, the western region, and the northeastern region was the lowest that affected by the national market demand. (4) At two different scales of the national level and provincial level, the suitability and contribution of same factors showed obvious differences. At the national level, advance of science and technology, development of non-agriculture industries, growth of foreign trade, and dependence on coal were the main causes of changes in energy efficiency. Specifically, development of non-agriculture industries and dependence on coal promoted the growth of scale efficiency, while growth of foreign trade dragged increase of scale efficiency. The advance of science and technology and development of non-agriculture industries facilitated the promotion of technical efficiency. At the provincial level, only growth of foreign trade showed a positive correlation with energy efficiency. (5) In process of promoting energy efficiency in mainland China, three aspects should be correctly recognized, including industrial structure, the energy market reform and the development of foreign trade. On one hand, we should pursue development by taking a new road toward industrialization to improve the industrial structure and preserve energy resources, and should be committed to making efforts to diversify the energy mix and enhance the share of clean and renewable energy in order to meet the enormous energy requirements in the future. On the other hand, the proportion of energy embodied in the commodities China exports had been much higher than that for other countries for a long time, which was a challenge to China's energy security and sustainable development. From this point, in the medium and medium to long term, carbon emission tax and environmental tax should be designed and implemented to strengthen export control of energy-intensive products.

Key words: regional energy efficiency, Data Envelopment Analysis model, temporal and spatial differentiation, causes