地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (2): 214-224.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201402002

• 土地利用与生态环境 • 上一篇    下一篇

汶川地震灾区滑坡空间特征变化分析

聂娟1, 连健2, 胡卓玮2   

  1. 1. 民政部国家减灾中心, 北京 100053;
    2. 首都师范大学资源与旅游学院, 北京 100037
  • 收稿日期:2013-08-25 修回日期:2013-11-26 出版日期:2014-02-10 发布日期:2014-02-10
  • 通讯作者: 连健(1983- ),男,汉族,河南省南阳市人,博士,主要从事空间技术在滑坡灾害风险评估与预警中的应用研究工作。E-mail:lianjian2001@163.com
  • 作者简介:聂娟(1978- ),女,汉族,湖北省老河口市人,硕士,副研究员,主要从事空间技术减灾与灾害风险管理等研究工作。E-mail:niejuan@ndrcc.gov.cn,wzh19831221@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家科技支撑计划课题(2008BAK49B01)

Spatial variation of landslides in Wenchuan Earthquake-stricken areas

NIE Juan1, LIAN Jian2, HU Zhuowei2   

  1. 1. National Disaster Reduction Center of the Ministry of Civil Affairs, Beijing 100053, China;
    2. College of Resources Environment and Tourism, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
  • Received:2013-08-25 Revised:2013-11-26 Online:2014-02-10 Published:2014-02-10

摘要: “5.12”汶川大地震触发了大量滑坡,给人民群众生命财产和社会经济发展造成了巨大损失。基于GIS空间分析方法,结合震前和震后的滑坡编目数据,对滑坡与坡度、坡向、高程、岩土类型、道路、河流和断裂带等7个孕灾环境因素的空间分布关系进行统计分析。结果表明:滑坡与孕灾环境因素的空间分布关系受地震的影响比较大。相比于震前,震后滑坡发生的优势坡度、优势岩土类型、优势距离缓冲区等均发生了很大的变化;并且坡向、距道路距离、距河流距离等因素对滑坡有明显地趋势性影响。

关键词: 汶川地震, 滑坡, 孕灾环境, 空间特征

Abstract: Wenchuan Earthquake has formed a rupture zone with a length of about 350 km and a width of about 50 km along the Longmen Mountain fault zone and triggered tens of thousands of geological disasters like landslides, debris flows and dilapidations which caused huge losses to the lives and property of the people and economic development and provided the basic condition for the occurrence of the landslides after the earthquake. The study on the changes of the relationship between landslides spatial distribution and the disaster pregnant environment factors has important scientific, social and economic value to analysis of the formation mechanism of the landslide induced by the earthquake.
On the basis of research finding by the predecessors, this article studies the construction of the multi-factor index system for the landslide disaster pregnant environment susceptibility assessment in the seriously destroyed regions in Wenchuan Earthquake including geomorphic condition (3 factors), cut slope condition (2 factors), lithology condition (1 factor) and tectonic condition (1 factor). On the basis of the construction of landslides inventory database (before and after earthquake) about the earthquake-stricken area, this paper analyses the relationship between the landslides spatial distribution and their disaster pregnant environment parameters including slope, aspect, elevation, lithology, road, river and fault before and after the earthquake using the statistical parameters of landslide number and landslide density based on GIS spatial analysis method to explain the changes of disaster environment parameter interval before and after Wenchuan earthquake.
Through the analysis we can come to the conclusion that the relationship between landslides spatial distribution and disaster-pregnant environmental factors was influenced by the earthquake to a certain extent based on the GIS spatial statistical analysis method: compared with the pre-seismic situation, after the earthquake, the range of slope, lithology, distance buffer that are most liable to induce landslides changed greatly, and, aspect, distance to roads, distance to rivers and other factors had remarkable influence on landslides. Research results provide the basis for determining the landslide-prone areas in the co-seismic condition.

Key words: Wenchuan Earthquake, landslide, disaster pregnant environment, statistical analysis

PACS: 

  • P642.22