地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (5): 876-886.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201405007

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京经济适用房布局特征及影响因素研究

党云晓1,2,3, 张文忠1,2, 刘志林4   

  1. 1. 中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室, 北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京100101;
    3. 中国科学院大学, 北京100049;
    4. 清华大学公共管理学院, 北京100084
  • 收稿日期:2013-05-06 修回日期:2014-01-10 出版日期:2014-05-10 发布日期:2014-05-10
  • 通讯作者: 张文忠(1966- ),男,内蒙古呼和浩特人,研究员,博士生导师,主要从事城市和区域发展研究。E-mail:zhangwz@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:zhangwz@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:党云晓(1987- ),女,河南济源人,博士研究生,主要研究方向为城市发展和住房问题。E-mail:dangyx.09s@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41230632)

Spatial distribution and analysis of land-based influencing factors of economical housing projects in Beijing

DANG Yunxiao1,2,3, ZHANGWenzhong1,2, LIU Zhilin4   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural ResourcesResearch, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;
    3. Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China;
    4. School of Public Policy and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
  • Received:2013-05-06 Revised:2014-01-10 Online:2014-05-10 Published:2014-05-10

摘要: 20 世纪90 年代,中国开始实施经济适用住房政策。然而,在政策的实施过程中,由于不合理的布局,经济适用住房并没有切实解决中低收入家庭的住房问题。学者们通过研究发现,大多数经济适用住房被安排在城市边缘地区,缺乏配套公共设施。目前,相关研究较多关注经济适用住房的空间布局及其引发的社会问题,少有学者关注影响经济适用住房布局的因素。因此,本文试图从地方政府的视角解答影响经济适用住房布局的因素。研究提出假设,地方政府受到土地财政收入的驱动,将经济适用住房项目布置在对土地收益损失最小的地方,同时兼顾政策实施过程中的拆迁压力、住房市场结构以及公共交通便利性等。在假设基础上,对北京经济适用住房空间布局的时空特征进行分析,并构建经济适用住房布局的影响因素模型。结果发现:1999-2009 年间北京经济适用住房建设速度放慢,同时呈现向五环以外扩散及向某些点集聚的趋势;模型结果证实土地价格是政府在落实经济适用住房项目时考虑的重要因素。

关键词: 经济适用住房, 空间布局, 土地财政, 北京

Abstract: Economical housing projects have been regarded as an important method to solve housing issues of low-income families in China. Despite the heightened political will expressed by the central government, the local implementation of economical housing programs remains highly contentious and unsatisfactory. The media have consistently reported on the "unexpected consequences" associated with economical housing programs, such as residential segregation, poverty concentration, home-work separation. Existing literature tends to focus on housing affordability and equity issues in Chinese cities and the evolution and framework of economical housing policy in China. Few studies have focused on the local implementation of economical housing programs as determined by the strategic decision making of city governments. Although many scholars have stressed that land-based interests of city governments determine urban development patterns, empirical evidence on the impact of government's land-based interests on economical housing policies has rarely been published.
This paper attempts to provide an institutional explanation for economical housing projects policy implementation in Chinese cities. We argue that the location of economical housing projects is a result of local government strategic policy implementation on the basis of its fiscal and political interest. Our main hypothesis is that, while local governments account for policy implementation, land-based interest drives economical housing projects to be located to certain sites that would minimize land-based revenue loss. Besides, removing pressure, housing market structure and public transportation are important factors that influence local governments'policy implementation. Using Beijing as the case study, we employed both GIS spatial analysis method and Logistic model. Based on the spatial distribution and influencing factors that impact the layout of economical housing projects in Beijing, we found that: (1) Construction speed of initiated economical housing projects in Beijing was slowing down. (2) Newly-built economical housing projects were spreading to the urban fringe and tended to gather at some sub-districts. (3) Land price was an important factor which influenced government's decision on the location of economical housing projects. In order to reduce financial revenue loss, local governments chose sub-districts with low land price to construct economical housing projects. (4) Local governments were more likely to choose sub-districts with less old houses and more rental households.

Key words: economical housing projects, spatial layout, land-based interest, Beijing