地理研究 ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (12): 2228-2238.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201412002

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中国城市土地城市化水平与进程的空间评价

王洋1(), 王少剑2,3(), 秦静4   

  1. 1. 广州地理研究所广东省地理空间信息技术与应用公共实验室,广州 510070
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
    4. 北京第二外国语学院旅游管理学院,北京 100024
  • 收稿日期:2014-04-18 修回日期:2014-08-25 出版日期:2014-12-10 发布日期:2015-03-13
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王洋(1984- ),男,黑龙江黑河人,博士,研究领域为经济地理、城市与区域规划。E-mail:wyxkwy@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41401164,41101120,41101150)

Spatial evaluation of land urbanization level and process in Chinese cities

Yang WANG1(), Shaojian WANG2,3(), Jing QIN4   

  1. 1. Guangzhou Institute of Geography, Guangdong Open Laboratory of Geospatial Information Technology and Application, Guangzhou 510070, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    4. The School of Tourism Management, Beijing International Studies University, Beijing 100024, China
  • Received:2014-04-18 Revised:2014-08-25 Online:2014-12-10 Published:2015-03-13

摘要:

土地城市化在中国快速而持续的城市化进程中扮演的支撑与制约角色越来越明显,但目前对土地城市化水平的测度框架依然没有明确统一的认识。基于此,提出了一种可供参考的土地城市化率的概念与测度方法,并确定其阈值。以中国656个城市的城区为研究单元,以2000年和2010年城市建设用地面积为基本数据,采用城市建设用地面积、土地城市化率、城市土地扩展面积和城市土地扩展速度分别评价了中国城市的土地城市化规模、水平、绝对进程和相对进程的空间分异格局。并分析了九大类城市建设用地类型对土地城市化进程的贡献率。结果表明:① 近10年来,中国城市总体土地城市化率提高近一倍,由“金字塔式”等级分布逐渐转为“钥匙式”的分布格局;东部地区城市建设用地规模较大,但城区面积更大,使其土地城市化率的数值较低。② 省会城市和沿海城市群的城市土地扩展面积最大,呈现出行政等级式分异和空间集聚式分异的空间格局;城市土地扩展速度呈现出沿海城市群与其他城市分异的空间格局。规模越大的城市,土地城市化进程越明显。③ 近10年来中国土地城市化进程的两大核心用地增长类型是居住用地和工业用地;规模越大的城市,工业用地增长的驱动作用越显著;中西部地区和中小规模城市以居住用地增长为核心,沿海城市群和重要交通轴线城市以工业用地增长为主。

关键词: 土地城市化率, 土地城市化进程, 城市建设用地, 城区, 中国

Abstract:

The land urbanization plays an increasingly important role in China's rapid and sustained urbanization process. However, the process was not explicit and has not become an alternative method for measuring land urbanization level. In this context, this paper proposes concepts and measurement methods of land urbanization rate (LUR) for measuring land urbanization level. Meanwhile, thresholds of LUR are studied. Then, based on area of urban construction land of Chinese 656 cities in 2000 and 2010, spatial pattern of land urbanization dimensions, level, absolute process and relative process are evaluated in the aspects of the area of urban construction land, LUR, urban land expansion area (ULEA), and urban land expansion rate (ULER). Finally, contributions of nine types of urban construction land to land urbanization process are evaluated. The results show that: (1) the general land urbanization rate of Chinese cities has doubled in the past decade. Meanwhile, the spatial pattern has changed from pyramid-ranked distribution to keyless distribution. The eastern cities in China have larger urban construction land and larger urban areas than other cities, which both result in the lower land urbanization rates; (2) Provincial capital cities and coastal urban agglomerations have the largest ULEA, and the differentiation patterns of ULEA are featured by both spatial agglomeration and urban administrative level. ULER presents spatial differentiation between coastal urban agglomerations and other cities. In addition, the larger cities present more significant land urbanization process; (3) Residential land and industrial land were the two prime types of land expansion in China's land urbanization process from 2000 to 2010. The larger the city is, the more significant driving effect of industrial development is. In central and western regions and small and medium-sized cities of China, the major type of land expansion is residential land, while in coastal urban agglomerations and main traffic axis, the main type of land expansion is industrial land.

Key words: land urbanization rate, land urbanization process, urban construction land, urban area, China