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地理研究  2015, Vol. 34 Issue (11): 2095-2104    DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201511008
  研究论文 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
近46年松木希错流域冰川和湖泊变化及原因分析
李治国1,2(),芦杰1,史本林1,李红忠1,张延伟1,李琳1
1. 商丘师范学院环境与规划学院,商丘 476000
2. 中国科学院青藏高原研究所,北京 100085
Glaciers and lake changes (1968-2013) and their causes in the Songmuxi Co Basin, Northwest Tibetan Plateau
LI Zhiguo1,2(),LU Jie1,SHI Benlin1,LI Hongzhong1,ZHANG Yanwei1,LI Lin1
1. Shangqiu Normal University, Shangqiu 476000, Henan, China
2. Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Beijing 100085, China
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摘要 

采用1:5万地形图、Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+/OLI遥感影像及数字高程模型数据,利用遥感和地理信息系统技术,并结合狮泉河、和田和于田3个气象站点1968-2013年的气温、降水量数据对松木希错流域的冰川、湖泊面积变化及其原因进行分析。结果表明:① 1968-2013年流域冰川面积不断退缩,由139.25 km2减少至137.27±0.02 km2,共减少1.98±0.02 km2,减少百分比为1.42%,2001年以后冰川退缩速度加快;② 1968-2013年松木希错面积不断扩张,由25.05 km2增加至32.62±0.02 km2,共扩张7.57±0.02 km2,扩张百分比为30.22%,且2001年之后扩张速率加快,在年代际上与冰川的退缩具有较好的耦合性;③ 1968-2013年湖面潜在蒸散量减少和降水增加分别是导致湖泊扩张的第一和第二影响因素,而升温引起的冰川、冻土融水增加有一定贡献,但影响较小且在年际尺度上不显著。

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李治国
芦杰
史本林
李红忠
张延伟
李琳
关键词 冰川湖泊气候变化松木希错    
Abstract

The Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings contain the largest number of glaciers outside the Polar Regions and are known as the world's "third pole". Glacial and lake changes in the third pole not only lead to changes in atmospheric circulation patterns in the region and the northern hemisphere but also affect agriculture, power generation and the water supplies of 1.5 billion people in the surrounding areas across ten countries. Hence, the situation of the glaciers and lakes of the third pole has attracted attention worldwide. While the Himalaya glaciers are largely retreating, the recent evolution of the Karakoram glaciers, widely acknowledged as peculiar, remains poorly understood. Glacial lakes showed a trend of expansion and the great lakes were shrinking in the Himalayas; but lakes in the Karakoram were considered stable. The causes and mechanisms of the complex and regionally heterogeneous behavior of glacier and lake change between the Karakorum and Himalayas are poorly understood. The Songmuxi Co Basin lies in the transitional zone between the Karakorum and Himalayas, and the glaciers and lakes have a significant impact on the local water supply and ecosystem. In this work, glacial and lake changes in the Songmuxi Co Basin, southern Karakoram Mountains were detected based on 1:50000 topographic maps, Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+/OLI remote sensing data and GIS techniques. The annual temperature, precipitation, potential annual evaporation at Shiquanhe, Hetian and Yutian stations from 1968 to 2013 were used to analyze climate change and its impact on glaciers and lakes area change. The results can be drawn as follows. (1) From 1968 to 2013, the total glacier area decreased from 139.25 km2 to 137.27 km2, a total loss of 1.98 km2, or 1.42% of the entire glacial area in 1968. In addition, there has been an accelerating trend of glacier retreat since 2001. (2) The area of Songmuxi Co expanded from 25.05 km2 in 1968 to 32.62 km2 in 2013. The overall increase was 7.57 km2, which was 30.22% of the lake area in 1968. The lake area expansion and glaciers retreat have a good coupling on a decadal scale. (3) From 1968 to 2013, the decreased potential evapotranspiration in the lake and increased precipitation are of the first and second factors which lead to lake area expansion. The increase in melt water from glaciers and frozen soil due to climate warming had no great impact on lake area expansion on the interannual scale while it may had some impact on the decadal one.

Key wordsglacier    lake    climate change    Songmuxi Co
收稿日期: 2015-04-24      出版日期: 2015-11-24
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(41101072,41025002,31100369)
引用本文:   
李治国, 芦杰, 史本林, 李红忠, 张延伟, 李琳. 近46年松木希错流域冰川和湖泊变化及原因分析[J]. 地理研究, 2015, 34(11): 2095-2104.
LI Zhiguo, LU Jie, SHI Benlin, LI Hongzhong, ZHANG Yanwei, LI Lin. Glaciers and lake changes (1968-2013) and their causes in the Songmuxi Co Basin, Northwest Tibetan Plateau. GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH, 2015, 34(11): 2095-2104.
链接本文:  
http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/10.11821/dlyj201511008      或      http://www.dlyj.ac.cn/CN/Y2015/V34/I11/2095
Fig. 1  松木希错流域位置
Tab. 1  数据源
Tab. 2  1968-2013年松木希错流域的冰川变化
Tab. 3  1968-2013年松木希错面积变化
Tab. 4  2013年1-12月松木希错面积变化
Fig. 2  1968-2013年狮泉河、和田和于田的年平均温度、年降水量、年潜在蒸散量变化(含各时段均值)
Fig. 3  2000-2013年湖泊变化与狮泉河、和田和于田的年平均温度、年降水量、年潜在蒸散量变化
Tab. 5  2000-2013年湖泊面积与狮泉河站、和田站和于田站气候要素的相关性分析
Fig. 4  2013年1-12月湖泊变化与狮泉河、和田和于田的月平均温度、月降水量、月潜在蒸散量变化
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