地理研究 ›› 2017, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (7): 1297-1308.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201707009

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国城市创新网络结构与创新能力研究

周灿(), 曾刚(), 曹贤忠   

  1. 华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心,城市与区域科学学院,上海 200062
  • 收稿日期:2016-11-24 修回日期:2017-03-19 出版日期:2017-07-31 发布日期:2017-09-13
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:周灿(1988- ),女,河南信阳人,博士研究生,主要从事创新网络与产业集群研究。E-mail: zc070260046@126.com

    X22:移动电话用户数

  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(10ZD&016);国家自然科学基金项目(41071093,41371147);德国科学基金会项目(LI 981/8-1 AOBJ:595493)

Chinese inter-city innovation networks structure and city innovation capability

Can ZHOU(), Gang ZENG(), Xianzhong CAO   

  1. Center for Modern Chinese City Studies
    School of City and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
  • Received:2016-11-24 Revised:2017-03-19 Online:2017-07-31 Published:2017-09-13

摘要:

网络范式的兴起引起了经济地理学者对于同网络结构相关的知识流动和创新产出的关注。基于“网络资本”视角,以国家知识产权局2014年中国292个地级以上城市间合作发明专利信息为原始数据,借助Ucinet、ArcGIS、SPSS等分析工具,刻画中国城市创新网络结构,间接测度创新网络资本,评价城市创新能力,进而对网络资本与城市创新关系进行探讨。研究表明:① 城市创新网络具有小世界特征和择优连接性,培育网络中心城市和创新城市群有益于优化创新网络结构,增加网络资本;② 城市创新网络空间格局呈现京津、宁沪、广深、成都等核心节点构成的菱形结构,城市创新能力空间格局与“结构性网络资本”空间分布较为一致;③ 网络资本与城市创新在0.01的水平上显著相关,据此认为,网络结构以及由此产生的网络结构资本影响城市创新能力。研究结论可为创新型城市建设和跨区域创新网络构建提供一定的参考。

关键词: 城市创新网络, 网络资本, 城市创新能力, 中国

Abstract:

In recent years, the emergence of the network paradigm has led to a large and growing body of scholarly research in economic geography focused on analysing the impact of innovation networks structures on knowledge flows and innovation outcomes. From a theoretical perspective, this paper aims to consider the link between networks, knowledge and innovation. Using the notion of 'network capital', whereby networks are considered to potentially offer benefits to network actors in terms of knowledge they are able to access, our paper takes 292 prefecture-level cities as the object, by using Ucinet, ArcGIS. We analyze the inter-city innovation networks structure and measure the innovation networks capital indirectly based on a unique co-patent dataset issued by the State Intellectual Property Office of P.R.China in 2014. The main findings of this study are drawn as follows: (1) The structure of the overall innovation linkages across 292 prefecture-level cities in China features 'small-world' network properties, whereby dense clusters of network actors are linked to other clusters via a relatively small number of bridging links. The city degree distribution of innovation networks is characterized by dissortative, whereby the inter-city innovation networks present a preferential attachment rule when the cities choose their innovation cooperation partners. The results demonstrate that the key nodes of innovation networks and innovative urban agglomerations can effectively improve knowledge spillovers and the value cities gain from networks. (2) The networks structure is diamond-shaped and anchored by four major metropolitan areas (Beijing-Tianjin in the North; Nanjing-Shanghai, East; Guangzhou-Shenzhen, South; Chengdu, West), which reveals a significant spatial heterogeneity. The spatial pattern of city innovation capability is degressive gradient from east to west and the high level innovation cities are in the obviously centralized distribution. The levels of city innovation capability show consistent spatial heterogeneity law with the 'structural network capital', which refers to the advantages accrued based on the structural position of cities within innovation networks. (3) The analysis strongly suggests that the centralities and structural holes of cities within innovation networks are significantly associated with the overall innovation performance of the respective cities at 0.01 confidence level. It is concluded that network structures, and resulting stocks of 'structural network capital', influence city innovation capability, indicating that network capital may be an important indicator of city innovation capability. The results of this study may provide reference for the construction of innovative cities and inter-regional innovation networks.

Key words: inter-city innovation networks, network capital, city innovation capability, China