地理研究 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (3): 512-526.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201803005

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国铁路运输效率时空演化特征及机理研究

刘斌全1,2(), 吴威2(), 苏勤1, 张璐璐2   

  1. 1. 安徽师范大学国土资源与旅游学院,芜湖 241000
    2. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,流域地理学重点实验室,南京 210008
  • 收稿日期:2017-10-14 修回日期:2018-01-12 出版日期:2018-03-15 发布日期:2018-04-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:刘斌全(1991- ),男,江苏盐城人,硕士,研究方向为交通运输地理。E-mail:logic_liu@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271137)

Spatio-temporal evolution characteristics and mechanism of railway efficiency in China

Binquan LIU1,2(), Wei WU2(), Qin SU1, Lulu ZHANG2   

  1. 1. College of Territorial Resources and Tourism, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, Anhui, China
    2. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
  • Received:2017-10-14 Revised:2018-01-12 Online:2018-03-15 Published:2018-04-25
  • About author:

    Author: Shi Zhenqin (1988-), PhD, specialized in regional development and land space management in mountain areas. E-mail: kevinszq@163.com

    *Corresponding author: Deng Wei (1957-), Professor, specialized in mountain environment and regional development.

    E-mail: dengwei@imde.ac.cn

摘要:

铁路是综合运输体系的重要组成部分之一,合理高效的铁路运输系统有利于发挥交通运输的支撑引领作用,运输效率问题的探讨显得尤为重要。以铁路局为研究单元,使用超效率SBM-Malmquist指数方法,对2005-2013年中国铁路运输效率的时空演化特征及影响机理进行了分析。研究表明:① 中国铁路运输效率呈波动上升趋势,但总体水平不高,规模效率是造成这两种现象的主要原因。② 铁路运输效率呈现东部高于中部,中部高于西部的空间分布格局。与此同时,高、中、低值区内部运输效率的空间分布存在差异,各铁路局效率演化的类型也不尽相同。③ 通过对研究期内大规模建设高铁的铁路局运输效率演化进行分析,发现近些年大规模高速铁路的建设并没有引起运输效率和生产率的较大变动。④ 从地域空间视角,区位条件、资源势差、地形条件以及城镇格局与城镇化水平等外部因素对运输效率空间格局及其演化产生着重要作用。

关键词: 运输效率, 时空演化, 影响机理, 铁路运输, 中国

Abstract:

Railway is one of the most important components of the integrated transportation system. A functional and efficient railway system can be conducive to sustainable development of society and economy, thus highlighting the importance of studies on rail efficiency. In this paper, we study the spatio-temporal evolution of China's railway transportation efficiency during 2005-2013 using the ultra-efficient SBM model and Malmquist index method. Hence, the characteristics and influencing mechanism of railway efficiency in China are also analyzed. The results are as follows: (1) the SBM model analysis of 18 Chinese rail bureaus indicates that rail efficiency increased from 0.724 to 0.778 due to a series of measures taken by the governments in recent years, such as reorganization, deregulation, and innovation. Scale efficiency increased by 1.93% per year and technical efficiency by 0.27% per year, indicating scale efficiency's major influence. We also find that the gap between 18 bureaus' efficiency narrowed in 2005-2013, standard deviation dropped from 0.287 in 2005 to 0.23 in 2013, and the coefficient of variation dropped from 0.396 to 0.295. (2) The spatial distribution pattern of railway transportation efficiency suggests that the railway system in the eastern region is more efficient than that of the central region, which, in turn, is more efficient than that of the western region. In addition, there are differences in the spatial distribution of the internal transport efficiency in the high-, medium-, and low-value areas, while the types of rail efficiency are also different. According to the characteristics of the railway bureaus' efficiency change, the 18 railway bureaus can be divided into three types: equilibrium, fluctuation, and growth. (3) Through the analysis of railway evolution, we find that the construction of large-scale high-speed railways in recent years has not caused significant changes in transport efficiency and productivity. (4) From the perspective of transportation geography, the location conditions, resource potential difference, topography, and urbanization pattern affect the spatial pattern of transport efficiency and its evolution.

Key words: transportation efficiency, spatio-temporal evolution, influence mechanism, railway transportation, China