地理研究 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (4): 772-782.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201804011

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

生态恢复中生态系统反服务与居民生存的博弈——以甘肃“猪进人退”现象为例

王文瑞(), 田璐, 唐琼, 邓小永   

  1. 兰州大学资源环境学院 干旱区与沙漠研究中心,兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2017-11-01 修回日期:2018-02-02 出版日期:2018-04-20 发布日期:2018-05-28
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:王文瑞(1974- ),男,甘肃环县人,博士,副教授,主要从事人类活动生态效应和旅游地理学研究。E-mail:wwrhx@lzu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41530745)

Game between ecosystem disservices and resident survival under ecological restoration: A case of the retreat of farmers led by the invasion of wild boars

Wenrui WANG(), Lu TIAN, Qiong TANG, Xiaoyong DENG   

  1. College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Center for Desert and Arid Region Research, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China
  • Received:2017-11-01 Revised:2018-02-02 Online:2018-04-20 Published:2018-05-28
  • About author:

    Author: Shi Zhenqin (1988-), PhD, specialized in regional development and land space management in mountain areas. E-mail: kevinszq@163.com

    *Corresponding author: Deng Wei (1957-), Professor, specialized in mountain environment and regional development.

    E-mail: dengwei@imde.ac.cn

摘要:

生态系统为人类提供积极的生态系统服务的同时,也产生了消极的影响,如生态质量改善后野生动物数量增加并对居民生产和生活产生冲击的现象,此即生态系统反服务(EDS)。以西秦岭西汉水上游林区边缘的部分村庄为研究区,以“猪进人退”为案例,通过访谈和问卷调查、博弈论模型分析,试图揭示生态恢复建设过程中生态系统反服务给当地居民生存带来的消极影响和各利益方的博弈均衡结果。研究表明:案例区生态质量趋好背景下66%的村庄遭野猪侵害,其引致的EDS具体表现在5个方面,包括农田被毁、部分村民搬迁、耕地撂荒增加、村民人身安全受到威胁以及疾病传染威胁等;人类(包括村民和政府)在解决此问题时的纳什均衡为(防治,侵害),在生态效益目标不改变的情况下,野猪侵害行为不可避免,村民防治措施的有效性决定了村民对生态保护积极态度的程度。政府如果提高生态补偿,则可以达到村民和政府均积极保护生态、村民也积极防治野猪的理想模式。

关键词: 生态恢复, 生态系统反服务, 居民生存, 博弈论, 猪进人退

Abstract:

Research on ecosystem services (ES) to human wellbeing has increased over the last few years following the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. These positive services have contributed reasonable decision-making suggestions for ecosystem reconstruction and restoration. However, the negative effects of ecosystem services on human wellbeing, termed ecosystem disservices (EDS), have been overlooked. In the recent few years, various EDS have been observed and discussed by western scholars. China has initiated several ecosystem restoration projects to conserve the environment and ecosystem as well as to promote ecosystem services, which have simultaneously brought nuisances to humans. Under the context of abundant studies on ES, EDS were concealed in researches and practices. We propose that EDS should be taken into account in China by a case study of the conflicts between the survival of countryside residents and invasion of wild boars, which took place in Tianshui and Longnan in the western Qinling range. In this area, 66% of villages were invaded by wild boars. The number of wild boars has increased under the forest restoration projects implemented in the recent 15 years. These restoration projects provided five types of EDS, including cropland damages from the invasion of wild boars, relocation of local inhabitants away from their original houses, abandonment of arable land, pressure of personal safety from wild boars, and probability risk of infection. The Game Theory model was employed to analyze the complex relationship between human survival and wild boar invasion as well as to determine the degree of EDS. The data of land use/cover and reforestation was obtained from remote-sensing images, and the negative effects of wild boars on local residents were obtained through interviews and questionnaires. The results showed that the improved ecosystem extended the area of forests toward the living areas of farmers and induced more wild animal activities in farmlands or living areas. Famers tried to maintain normal agricultural activities by avoiding the invasion of wild boars. The Game Theory model analysis provides the Nash equilibrium (prevention, invasion), which implies that wild boar invasion could not been avoided in the current situation. The government policies should focus on balancing the ecological restoration and human survival and as well as on improving and optimizing the resource allocation to help and compensate the loss of agriculture products. These approaches are the most effective ways to improve ecological construction, wild animal conservation, and farmer wellbeing. This research illustrates the significance of EDS and ES research in the process of ecological civilization construction in China. The Game Theory is one of the effective approaches to analyze the conflicts between human wellbeing and ecosystem restoration. Our results will also provide useful reference to the harmonious development strategies concerning ecological restoration and human survival in China.

Key words: ecological restoration, ecosystem disservices (EDS), resident survival, Game Theory, wild boars