地理研究 ›› 2018, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (7): 1334-1348.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201807007

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基于历史制度分析的珠江三角洲非国有经济演化

符文颖()   

  1. 华南师范大学地理科学学院,广州 510631
  • 收稿日期:2018-02-05 修回日期:2018-05-30 出版日期:2018-07-30 发布日期:2018-08-03
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:符文颖(1984- ),女,海南海口人,博士,副教授,研究方向为产业集群与区域创新。E-mail:fuwenying@m.scnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41630635);国家自然科学基金项目(41301109)

Evolution of non-state sector in the Pearl River Delta based on a historical institutional analysis

Wenying FU()   

  1. School of Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
  • Received:2018-02-05 Revised:2018-05-30 Online:2018-07-30 Published:2018-08-03
  • About author:

    Author: Shi Zhenqin (1988-), PhD, specialized in regional development and land space management in mountain areas. E-mail: kevinszq@163.com

    *Corresponding author: Deng Wei (1957-), Professor, specialized in mountain environment and regional development.

    E-mail: dengwei@imde.ac.cn

摘要:

采用历史制度的分析视角,对珠江三角洲城市东莞和佛山在改革开放后非国有经济部门发展结构和演化过程进行分析,试图揭示两个城市在发展模式和路径上形成差异的内在逻辑。东莞和佛山在改革开放初期选择了不同的集体经济组织方式重组生产资源和发展地方经济,而在改革开放后期,佛山地方政府主导的城镇集体工业转制要远远慢于东莞的乡村集体工业,并采用了次优的内部企业转制策略推进改革。分析表明:珠三角的东莞和佛山在非国有经济部门发展路径上的分叉点在于经济主体对地方特定的历史禀赋和社会网络的利用方式,而初始的非国有经济结构对改革后期的发展进一步构成路径依赖,导致两个城市各异的转制速度和方式。

关键词: 非国有经济, 城镇集体企业, 乡村集体企业, 产权转制, 历史制度分析

Abstract:

Historical institutionalism is an approach to studying regional development, and is characterized by the comparative setting embedded in historical and institutional environment. Using a historical institutional perspective, this paper attempts to shed lights on how historical endowments and local conditions affect the development path of localities within the context of transition economies. Empirical analysis is operationalized using a comparative case in two cities, Dongguan and Foshan, in the Pearl River Delta, China. Based on a time series of secondary data from the provincial and municipal statistical yearbooks from 1978 to 2012, we analyze the structure of non-state sector and its evolution in the wake of the opening up policy. Political devolution and fiscal decentralization has invoked the human agency to exploit the value of extra-local social networks in Dongguan, which has led to the rapid development of rural collective sector. In contrast, strong presence of social networks within the old planned system in Foshan has led to the dependence to the local government to secure resources and credit, and thus develop the urban collective sector. The close coalition between government and industry has created a vested interest in the collective sectors, which has further resulted in the sticky inertia of ownership transformation in the late 1990s. In Dongguan, the rural community organizations forged close ties with investors based on kinship, short-term contracts and management fees. At that time, neither the rural community organizations nor the overseas investors were willing to make long-term investments in the growth of the enterprises. Therefore, the complexity in transferring ownership right has been much lower in Dongguan. In consequence, insider privatization is more commonly practiced in Foshan, while Dongguan tends to adopt the form of outsider privatization. Although the organization of rural collective sector has led to a smoother process of ownership reform in Dongguan, the underdevelopment of local technological and entrepreneurial talents, as well as the incapability of local government to offer support in innovation-related infrastructure and governance could potentially influence its private sector in the long run. Overall, the historical institutional perspective suggests that the divergent path of the localities has been attributed to the ways the economic agents utilize the unique historical assets and social networks in the localities, and has resulted in path dependency at the later phase of reform and development.

Key words: non-state sector, urban collective enterprise, rural collective enterprise, ownership reform, historical institutional analysis