地理研究 ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (9): 2129-2147.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180562

• 观点与争鸣 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国企业出口动态的空间差异性

胡绪千1,2,贺灿飞1,2()   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
    2. 北京大学-林肯研究院 城市发展与土地政策研究中心,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-30 修回日期:2019-04-11 出版日期:2019-09-20 发布日期:2019-09-11
  • 通讯作者: 贺灿飞 E-mail:hecanfei@urban.pku.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:胡绪千(1994-),男,山东青岛人,博士研究生,研究方向为贸易地理和跨国公司。E-mail: huxuqian@pku.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金重点项目(41731278);国家杰出青年科学基金项目(41425001)

The spatial difference of market dynamics of Chinese exporters

HU Xuqian1,2,HE Canfei1,2()   

  1. 1. School of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
    2. Peking University-Lincoln Institute Center for Urban Development and Land Policy, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2018-05-30 Revised:2019-04-11 Online:2019-09-20 Published:2019-09-11
  • Contact: Canfei HE E-mail:hecanfei@urban.pku.edu.cn

摘要:

对于企业出口动态的研究有助于更好地理解支撑贸易增长、贸易方式结构变化的机制。本文描述近年来中国企业出口动态的空间格局,并从地方出口多样性的角度解释出口动态的空间差异性。研究发现,在2003—2011年,中国企业出口动态在时间上呈现从高速增长到稳定增长的变化特征;空间上表现出地区集聚特征,贸易高进入型地区呈现出从沿海向内陆转移的趋势,且在一般贸易企业中更为明显。中国企业出口动态受到产品出口多样性和市场出口多样性影响,产品出口多样性主要依靠信息发现效应提升地方企业出口市场进入率,并不能阻止企业退出出口市场;市场出口多样性不能促进企业进入出口市场,但可抑制在位企业退出市场,且这种风险分散效应对于一般贸易更强。此外,对于能够在多次或持续出口的企业而言,出口产品相关多样性能够降低地方企业出口退出率,表明出口学习效应的效果可能与企业参与出口的时间有关。

关键词: 中国企业出口动态, 产品出口多样性, 市场出口多样性, 贸易方式

Abstract:

With the growth of the total export of Chinese firms, the export dynamics of firms in various regions show obvious spatial imbalance. The study of export dynamics helps to better understand the patterns that support the growth of trade and the changes in the structure of the trade type. This study tries to examine the pattern of export dynamics of Chinese firms over the past decade and identify the influencing factors of export dynamics based on using prefecture level cities from the perspective of export varieties. During 2003-2011, the export dynamics changed from high-speed growth to substantial decline and then to steady growth. In terms of Chinese firms’ entry and exit dynamics, the export entry rate and export exit rate in most regions have been significantly reduced in time dimension, and the export dynamic of firms tended to be stable; in spatial dimension, the eastern region had a lower level of export entry rate and export exit rate than the central and western regions. At the same time, it showed the characteristics of regional agglomeration, and the trade-growing areas showed the trend of moving from the coastal to the inland areas. This trend was more obvious in general trade compared with processing trade. Empirical research shows that Chinese firms' exporting dynamics are affected by export product variety and export market variety. Export product variety improves the entry rate of local firms through information discovery effect, but does not help firms keep in the foreign markets, which means that the export learning effect does not work at least in the short to medium term. However, export market variety can restrain firms from withdrawing from the markets, though it has no benefit to improve the entry rate. As for the robustness check, this paper divided the observations into two parts according to trade types, and finds that the risk diversification effect is more obvious in general trade. For the firms that are able to export repeatedly or continuously, the diversity of export products can reduce the exit rate, indicating that the export learning effect may be related to the duration of firms' participation in exports.

Key words: export dynamics of Chinese firms, export product variety, export market variety, trade type