地理研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (7): 1640-1653.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020190530

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

道路旅行中的背包客涂鸦:空间实践与新部落的形成

解佳1,2, 孙九霞1,2, 王学基1,2()   

  1. 1. 中山大学旅游学院,广州 510275
    2. 中山大学旅游休闲与社会发展研究中心,广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2019-06-24 修回日期:2019-11-27 出版日期:2020-07-20 发布日期:2020-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 王学基
  • 作者简介:解佳(1987-),女,江苏苏州人,博士,博士后,研究方向为旅游社会学和文化地理学。E-mail: xiejia0610@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(15ZDB118);中国博士后科学基金项目(2018M640876);教育部人文社会科学研究青年基金项目(19YJCZH175);国家自然科学基金面上项目(41771160)

Backpackers’ graffiti in road travel: Spatial practices and the formation of the neo-tribe

XIE Jia1,2, SUN Jiuxia1,2, WANG Xueji1,2()   

  1. 1. School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2. Center for Leisure, Tourism and Social Development, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2019-06-24 Revised:2019-11-27 Online:2020-07-20 Published:2020-09-20
  • Contact: WANG Xueji

摘要:

随着道路旅行的兴起,中国背包客将涂鸦活动的阵地转移至道路和停泊点等非城市空间。背包客的道路涂鸦与城市涂鸦、景区涂鸦都存在着较大差别,它所具有的时空特殊性为剖析旅游过程中通道与停泊点的意义、理解旅游者如何参与地方生成、探索处于移动中的人群如何构建共同体提供了生动案例。本研究以川藏公路为案例地,采用移动民族志与多点民族志相结合的方法,探索背包客涂鸦作为空间实践的意义。研究发现,涂鸦实践使得川藏公路及其沿线的节点成为背包客旅程甚至人生经历的见证者,原本功能性、政治性的空间被改写成私人的、情感的空间,涂鸦实践还参与构建了一个后现代的流动新部落。因此,涂鸦重塑了川藏公路的空间意义,在川藏公路独特旅行文化的形成中扮演了重要角色。

关键词: 背包客, 涂鸦, 川藏公路, 空间实践, 新部落, 道路旅行

Abstract:

With the popularity of road travel, Chinese backpackers have shifted the place of graffiti activities from cities to non-urban spaces such as highways. Although backpackers’ graffiti is influenced by both traditional travel culture and modern graffiti art, it is different from graffiti in urban areas and scenic spots. Backpackers’ graffiti combines “roaming” and “graffiti” and thus can be regarded as a special spatial practice. The spatio-temporal characteristics of backpackers’ graffiti provide a vivid context for analyzing the importance of road and nodes in tourism geography, for understanding how tourists participate in the place making of destinations, and for exploring how a community can be created during a mobile process. This paper takes backpackers’ travel in Sichuan-Tibet highway as a case, exploring the significance of graffiti as a spatial practice by combining mobile ethnography with multi-sited ethnography. We interviewed 20 backpackers including hikers, riders, hitchhikers and 2 hostel owners. Also, graffiti on walls of hostels and restaurants, on the roadside railings, monuments and scenic spots was collected. This study finds that graffiti practice makes the Sichuan-Tibet highway and nodes along the way such as hostels become the witness of backpackers' journeys and even their lives. The Sichuan-Tibet highway originally as the instrumental and political space is rewritten into a private and emotional space. Because Tibet is thought to be holy by Han travelers, their travel to Tibet via this highway is regarded as pilgrimage to some extent. The difficulties during the journey due to the dangerous road conditions is constantly compared to difficulties in life by travelers. Lots of graffiti record travelers’ experiences and feelings during the journey. Moreover, graffiti practice contributes to the formation of a post-modern “neo-tribe”, as Michel Maffesoli suggested. Backpackers interact with each other via graffiti although they are not going through these spaces at the same time. Graffiti can be perceived as a language of the backpacking group and they “talked” to each other through making comments’ on others’ texts. As a protocol, backpackers avoid overlapping others’ text. It becomes a game of backpackers to compete for the space left over and they develop different strategies. Backpackers share their feelings, exchange jokes, and encourage each other through graffiti. As a result, backpackers’ graffiti reshapes the spatial meaning of Sichuan-Tibet highway and its nodes, and this activity also plays a crucial role in the formation of the unique travel culture of this highway.

Key words: backpacker, graffiti, Sichuan-Tibet highway, spatial practices, neo-tribe, road travel