地理研究 ›› 2020, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (12): 2842-2854.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180834

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

路域农田大型土壤动物对公路运营过程重金属累积的响应

李晓强(), 董炜华(), 宋扬   

  1. 长春师范大学地理科学学院,长春 130032
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-17 修回日期:2020-08-20 出版日期:2020-12-20 发布日期:2021-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 董炜华
  • 作者简介:李晓强(1985-),男,吉林洮南人,博士,副教授,研究方向为土壤动物生态学。E-mail: 6657555@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(31670527);国家自然科学基金项目(41601263);吉林省教育厅十三五科学技术研究项目(JJKH20190498KJ)

Effect of heavy metals from highway operation on soil macro-fauna in roadside farmland area

LI Xiaoqiang(), DONG Weihua(), SONG Yang   

  1. College of Geographical Sciences, Changchun Normal University, Changchun 130032, China
  • Received:2018-08-17 Revised:2020-08-20 Online:2020-12-20 Published:2021-02-20
  • Contact: DONG Weihua

摘要:

高速公路运营过程汽车尾气中的重金属长期在周围环境累积,使得周围环境处在不稳定的状态,影响路域农田土壤动物群落特征。本文垂直距离京哈高速公路德惠段南侧和北侧5 m、20 m、100 m、200 m和1600 m的玉米田依次划分了5条取样带。5月、8月和10月不同季节进行采集样品。测定了不同样带土壤重金属Ni、Cu、Zn、Cd、Hg和Pb含量,手捡法收集不同样带大型土壤动物。探究了大型土壤动物群落组成,结构对公路运营过程重金属累积的响应。结果表明:① 不同季节样带随着与高速公路距离增加,土壤综合污染指数逐渐减小,公路两侧5 m、20 m和100 m样带土壤动物个体数逐渐增加;② 公路运营过程中的重金属受气候因素和微地形因素影响,对大型土壤动物影响具有季节差异;③ 公路运营过程中的重金属Hg和Ni主要影响公路两侧不同样带大型土壤动物群落结构。

关键词: 高速公路, 重金属, 农田, 大型土壤动物

Abstract:

Heavy metals from highway operation affect the soil faunal diversity in the surrounding farmland area. However, responses of composition and structure of soil faunal community to soil heavy metal pollution from highway operation are not fully understood. Thus, in this study, we performed an experiment in farmland area in the Dehui section of Beijing-Harbin highway. Sampling transsects of 5 m, 20 m, 100 m, 200 m and 1600 m away from the highway region were conducted on both sides of the highway (the south and north) in May, August and October of 2014. The contents of heavy metals of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb were determined by different sampling transsects. Soil macrofauna was collected up by hand picking method followed up with identification by microscope. The results showed that synthetic index of soil pollution decreased with the increase of the distance of sampling transsects. Soil macro-faunal individuals increased only with the increase of the distance of sampling transsects of 5 m, 20 m and 100 m. In total, 949 and 940 individuals were captured on the south and north sides of the highway, and they were divided into 12 groups. There were seasonal differences on the effect of heavy metal pollution from highway operation on soil macro-fauna in roadside farmland area, due to the fact that climatic and micro-topographic factors had effect on transformation of the heavy metals. It was obvious that the highway operation exerts effects on soil macro-fauna at sampling transsects of 20 m, 100 m and 200 m in May as well as at sampling transsects of 20 m in August. Soil heavy metal pollution level was safe in different transsects in October of the experiment on both sides of the highway. A significantly higher abundance and richness of soil macro-fauna was evident in the 1600 m sampling transsects than the 5 m sampling transsects in October on the south side of the highway (P<0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) results showed there was significant difference of soil macro-faunal dominant and common groups between sampling transsects. Soil macro-faunal diversity of 1600 m sampling transsects was different from that of the other sampling transsects. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results showed that soil macro-faunal diversity was positively correlated with heavy metals of Hg and Ni in different sampling transsects on both sides of the highway. In a word, soil heavy metal pollution from highway operation can significantly change the composition, structure and diversity of soil macro-faunal community in the surrounding farmland area in the Dehui section of Beijing-Harbin highway.

Key words: highway, heavy metal, farmland, soil macro-fauna