地理研究 ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (9): 2399-2425.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020201029

• 研究论文 •    下一篇

国家需求结构演变理论及其应用——以中俄北极合作为例

于会录1(), 李飞2, 林英华2,3, 崔亚婷1   

  1. 1. 鲁东大学资源与环境工程学院,烟台 264025
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所,北京 100101
    3. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2020-10-23 接受日期:2021-05-11 出版日期:2021-09-10 发布日期:2021-11-10
  • 作者简介:于会录(1973-),男,山东禹城市人,博士,讲师,硕士生导师,主要研究方向为地缘政治和区域生态经济。E-mail: yuhuilu73@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社科基金“一带一路”专项基金(17VDL016);国家自然科学基金项目(41871152);国家自然科学基金项目(41661033)

The evolution theory of national need structure and its application:A case study of the Sino-Russian Arctic development cooperation

YU Huilu1(), LI Fei2, LIN Yinghua2,3, CUI Yating1   

  1. 1. School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai 264025, Shandong, China
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China
    3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
  • Received:2020-10-23 Accepted:2021-05-11 Published:2021-09-10 Online:2021-11-10

摘要:

首先,提出国家需求概念,在总结国家需求结构及其演变特点的基础上,提出双边关系中国家需求结构演变的三个模型:相对稳定型、合作优化型、关系紧张型。认为国家需求和人的需求一样,存在由低层次向高层次跃升的演变趋势。“低层次需求得到满足”是需求层次升级的前提条件,但这种满足具有方向性、主观性、阶段性。其次,运用国家需求结构演变模型分析了中俄北极开发合作的地缘政治环境,提出了维持中俄北极合作良好态势的对策建议:美国是中俄北极合作发生变数的能动力量,妥善处理好中美关系是重中之重;政治互信是中俄北极合作的决定性因素,加强双方在国际关系理论研究领域的合作是行之有效的政策工具;提高合作项目的透明度,向国际社会分享项目对生态环境和原住民影响的相关数据;加强战略沟通扩大共同利益,维持与美国盟友的合作伙伴关系;作为非北极国家,中国应该坚持对北极事务“有所为有所不为”的原则。最后,本研究得出如下几点结论:国家需求结构演变理论能够解释西方国际关系理论三大学派的核心观点;双边国家需求结构演变模型关注国际关系发生突变的规律性;国家需求结构演变理论能够为不同层次不同规模国家制定外交政策提供理论参考。

关键词: 国家需求结构演变, 需求强度, 国家需求曲线, 合作空间, 中俄北极开发合作

Abstract:

This paper constructs a theoretical framework describing the evolution principle of international relations, and employs it to analyze the geopolitical environment of Sino-Russian Arctic cooperation. Firstly, based on the concepts of national need and national need structure, this paper summarizes the evolution characteristics of national need structure, and puts forward three evolution models of national need structure in bilateral relations: relatively stable model, optimizing cooperation model, and tensing relationship model. It is believed that national needs are the same as individual needs, and there is an evolution trend from low-level to high-level. "Low-level needs have been satisfied" is a prerequisite for the escalation of the level of needs. Secondly, we employ evolution theory of national need structure to analyze the geopolitical environment facing Sino-Russian Arctic development cooperation, and put forward counterme- asures and suggestions to maintain the good momentum of Sino-Russian Arctic development cooperation: Properly handling Sino-U.S. relations is the top priority because the U.S. factor is an active obstacle for the Sino-Russian Arctic development cooperation; Political mutual trust is a decisive factor in Sino-Russian Arctic cooperation, therefore strengthening cooperative research in the field of international relations theory between two countries is an effective policy instrument. We should improve the transparency of cooperative projects and share relevant data of projects' impact on the ecological environment and indigenous peoples in the international community, and strengthen strategic communication in order to expand common interests and maintain cooperative partnerships with America’s allies. As a non-Arctic country, China should adhere to the principle of "participation in Arctic affairs to a proper extent". Finally, we draw several conclusions: The evolution theory of national need structure can explain the core viewpoints of the three schools of Western international relations; the evolution model of the need structure of bilateral countries focuses on the regularity of sudden changes in international relations, and helps provide decision-making reference for the prediction of international relation crises and the formulation of emergency plans; the theory of national need structure can provide reference for the foreign policy making of different countries.

Key words: evolution of national need structure, need intensity, national need curve, cooperation space, Sino-Russian Arctic development cooperation