地理研究 ›› 2006, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 439-448.doi: 10.11821/yj2006030009

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

北京市菜地土壤和蔬菜的锌含量及其健康风险评估

黄泽春1, 宋波1,2, 陈同斌1, 郑袁明1, 杨军1,2   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所环境修复研究中心,北京100101;
    2. 中国科学院研究生院,北京100039
  • 收稿日期:2005-12-21 修回日期:2006-03-22 出版日期:2006-06-15 发布日期:2006-06-15
  • 通讯作者: 陈同斌(1963-),研究员,博士生导师。E-mail:chentb@igsnrr.ac.cn E-mail:E-mail:chentb@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:黄泽春(1974-),福建福安人,博士。主要从事区域土壤环境质量与植物修复研究。
  • 基金资助:

    国家杰出青年基金项目(40325003);北京市自然科学基金重大项目(6990002)

A survey of zinc concentrations in vegetables and soils in Beijing and their health risk

HUANG Ze-chun1, SONG Bo1,2, CHEN Tong-bin1, ZHENG Yuan-ming1, YANG Jun1,2   

  1. 1. Center for Environmental Remediation,Institute of Geographic Sciences andNatural Resources Research,CAS,Beijing 100101,China;
    2. Graduate School,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100039,China
  • Received:2005-12-21 Revised:2006-03-22 Online:2006-06-15 Published:2006-06-15

摘要:

通过97种蔬菜、454个样品的调查表明,北京市菜地土壤锌明显高于北京市土壤锌背景值,其含量范围、算术均值、中值和几何均值分别为24.9308、79.2、63.8和70.7 mg/kg。北京市蔬菜锌含量范围、中值和算术均值分别为0.00525.6、2.24和3.11 mg/kg鲜重。叶菜类蔬菜锌含量显著高于瓜果类蔬菜,其余各类型间差异均不显著。北京市市售外地产蔬菜锌含量显著高于本地产蔬菜;裸露地蔬菜与设施蔬菜锌含量差异不显著。冬瓜、西红柿、茄子、黄瓜、辣椒和大葱和部分特菜的锌富集系数最低,抗土壤锌污染的能力较强。北京市居民从蔬菜中摄入锌的量为4.04 mg/人.d,蔬菜锌对北京市居民不会构成健康风险。

关键词: 北京市, 蔬菜, 锌, 健康风险, 抗污染品种

Abstract:

To assess the human health risk posed by elevated concentrations of zinc in vegetables,and to identify pollution-tolerant vegetable varieties,a large scale survey of zinc levels in soils and vegetables planted or sold in Beijing was conducted.Fifty-two soil samples were collected from gardens and fields used to grow vegetable plants.In addition,97 varieties of 402 fresh vegetable samples were obtained from vegetable stalls,supermarkets and wholesale outlets.Zinc concentrations were measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Zinc concentrations in soils ranged from 24.9 to 307.5 mg kg-1,with arithmetic,median,geometric and Box-Cox means of 79.29,63.81,70.7 and 68.01 mg kg-1,respectively.Compared with the background zinc concentrations of soils from Beijing,there appeared a significant accumulation of zinc in soils collected from fields that produced vegetables.Zinc concentrations in the edible plant portions ranged from 0.005 to 25.6 mg kg-1 fresh weight, with arithmetic,median and Box-Cox means of 3.11,2.24 and 2.55 mg kg-1 fresh weight,respectively.In all of the samples and vegetable varieties,zinc was less than the Tolerance Limit of Zinc in Foods(TLCF) of 100 mg kg-1 fresh weight for pulse and 20 mg kg-1 for other vegetables.The TLCF is the maximum permissible concentration of zinc in vegetables that will be consumed by people.The highest level of zinc detected in a vegetable plant was 25.6 mg kg-1,which was measured in a green soybean sample.Statistical analysis showed that the zinc concentration in leaf vegetables was significant higher than that of gourd and fruit vegetable.And the zinc concentration in vegetables from other places of China was significantly higher than the concentration of local vegetables,but there was no significantly difference between field-grown vegetables and those planted in a greenhouse. Results of hierarchical cluster analysis on the zinc bioconcentration factor(BCF) in vegetables indicated that the plants sampled could be separated into three groups based on BCF.Beans round trellis(Vigna unguiculata),the first group,had the highest BCFs,and the following is the second group,including Chinese cabbage(Brassica pekinensis),Pakchoi(Brassica chinensis) and radish(Raphanus),had higher zinc BCFs while Chinese green onion,chili(Capsicum annuum) cucumber(Cucumis sativus),eggplant(Solanum sp.),tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum) and wax gourd(Beninacasa hispida) had lower zinc BCFs. The average ingestion rate of zinc from vegetables was 4.04 mg/individual/day for people of Beijing,making up 22.4% of the quantity demanded(18 mg/individual/day) and 7.4% of No-Observed-Adverse Effect-Level(NOAEL).Consuming vegetables with elevated zinc concentrations may not pose a health risk to local residents.

Key words: Zinc, Beijing, vegetables, soil, bioaccumulation, human health risk, pollutant-resistant plants