地理研究 ›› 2011, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (1): 185-194.doi: 10.11821/yj2011010018

• 地球信息科学 • 上一篇    

基于GIS和RS的喀斯特流域SCS产流模型应用

郑长统1,2, 梁虹1, 舒栋才3, 焦树林1, 谢晓云1, 王茂强1   

  1. 1. 贵州师范大学地理与环境科学学院, 贵阳 550001;
    2. 山东省寿光市国士资源局,山东寿光 262700;
    3. 贵州省水文水资源局, 贵阳 550002
  • 收稿日期:2009-12-12 修回日期:2010-04-12 出版日期:2011-01-20 发布日期:2011-01-20
  • 作者简介:郑长统(1983-),男,山东章丘人,硕士,主要从事水文水资源与GIS研究。E-mail: zctzcyzcy@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    贵州师范大学学生重点科研项目(2009~2010)

Study of karst basin SCS runoff model based on GIS and RS

ZHENG Chang-tong1,2, LIANG Hong1, SHU Dong-cai3, JIAO Shu-ling1, XIE Xiao-yun1, WANG Mao-qiang1   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Environment Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001, China;
    2. Bureau of Land and Resources of Shouguang in Shandong,Shouguang 262700, Shandong, China;
    3. Guizhou Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resource, Guiyang 550002, China
  • Received:2009-12-12 Revised:2010-04-12 Online:2011-01-20 Published:2011-01-20

摘要: 参数λ是SCS产流模型的一个重要参数,模型研究者将标准值λ=0.2作为模型的参数值。但模型参数没有考虑地貌类型对产流的影响,喀斯特地区不同地貌类型下地表坡度、土层厚度、地层岩性、基岩裂隙的发育程度等方面均存在很大差别,而这些因素都直接影响着流域的产流机制。在考虑地貌类型对喀斯特流域产流影响的基础上,通过率定不同地貌类型下的λ值对SCS模型进行改进。以GIS和RS技术作为获取流域地貌类型、土壤类型和土地利用方式等空间信息的主要手段,运用实测降雨径流资料对参数λ进行率定。由于喀斯特地区很少存在具有单一地貌的流域,仅靠实测数据很难确定各地貌类型的λ值,本文尝试通过对地貌结构与λ值关系的分析确定适合喀斯特流域的参数λ,从而建立起喀斯特流域SCS产流模型。模型在贵州平湖流域的应用结果表明,建立的喀斯特流域SCS产流模型的模拟精度较SCS产流模型有了很大提高,说明建立的喀斯特流域SCS产流模型比较合理,可以应用于喀斯特典型流域。

关键词: 喀斯特流域, 地貌类型, SCS产流模型, GIS, RS

Abstract: Parameter λ is an important index of the SCS runoff model. Model researchers take the standard value λ= 0.2 as the model parameter. However, the model has not considered the impact of landform types on runoff. There are a lot of differences between soil thickness, surface slope, lithology and the degree of development of rock fracture of different landform types in karst basin. All these factors have a direct impact on runoff mechanism of watershed. The landform types have a great influence on the runoff of karst basin. The SCS model is modified by calibrating the values of λ of different landform types. GIS and RS are important means to obtain the spatial information of a watershed. By using GIS and RS, we extract the information data of landform types, soil classification, land use, and obtain the CN values of different landform types. There are no karst basins with a single landform type. So it is difficult for measured data alone to calibrate the value of the various landform types of λ. This paper attempts to calibrate the parameter λ of different landform types by analyzing the relationship between landscape structure and the parameter λ. The parameter λ values of the karst basin are calculated in combination with measured data and landform characteristics, and the karst basin SCS runoff model is established at last. The model is applied to the Pinghu basin, compared with the SCS runoff model. The results demonstrate that the precision of the karst basin SCS runoff model is much higher than that of the SCS runoff model. It has been shown that the karst basin SCS runoff model can be used to simulate the runoff of a typical basin of karst. The result of this study showed that this method can be used to complete the model parameterization, calibration and verification, which is feasible under the conditions of lack of information. It can refer to other factors which affect runoff also. At the same time, hydrological models are supported by GIS and RS technology, which not only enriches the means of access to spatial information, but also improves the efficiency of the model calculation.

Key words: karst basin, landform types, SCS runoff model, GIS, RS