GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (8): 2008-2026.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020180575

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The differentiation and effects of social-spatial accessibility in compulsory education resources in Nanjing

SONG Weixuan1,TU Tangqi2,YIN Shanggang3,XU Yan4,LIU Chunhui5   

  1. 1. Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
    2. Institutes of Science and Development, CAS, Beijing 100190, China
    3. School of Geographical Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023, China
    4. School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
    5. College of Humanities & Social Development, Institute of Regional Agricultural Research, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China;
  • Received:2018-06-01 Revised:2018-07-20 Online:2019-08-20 Published:2019-08-20

Abstract:

As an important basis for social equity, educational equity is a hot spot of interdisciplinary research. Therefore, urban geologists focus on the equilibrium analysis of the spatial distribution of education resources to explore the social-spatial equity of the allocation of education resources in the city. The paper aims at the particularity of the compulsory education resources being allocated under the "school-district system", and comprehensively considers the variety of the difficulties in obtaining the education resources. Based on this, it presents the social-spatial accessibility, in forms of the geographic accessibility, opportunity availability and economic affordability, to measure the difference of the spatial allocation of education resources and the difficulty in obtaining them. Taking school district of public primary and junior middle school as the space unit and residential community as the statistical object, it analyses the social-spatial accessibility of the public schools in the main city of Nanjing in 2008 and 2018, respectively. The result shows that: (1) The geographic accessibility to schools in the inner city is superior to that in the outer city, but the spatial difference is rapidly shrinking as schools are incorporated in the inner city and built in the outer city; (2) the opportunity availability to schools in the inner city is inferior to that in the outer city, and the access to the education resources in the inner city, especially the education resources of high quality, has become more scare, for the demolition in the inner city and the construction in the outer city; (3) economic affordability is associated with the grade of school, which in the top school district is the minimum, while, there is a big decline in economic accessibility, with the overall soaring housing price in Nanjing. The difficulty of obtaining high quality education resources is greatly increased, as the spatial difference of geographical accessibility is narrowing, while the social-spatial difference of opportunity availability and economic affordability is obviously expanded. Under the principle of the resources allocation of the school district system and the marketization, the economic capital has gradually become the core factor of the distribution of education resources. Having been the core competitiveness for high quality education resources, economic capital makes it easier for rich families to live in high quality school areas and accept high-quality education, which realizes intergenerational transfer of social and economic status, thus forms the interaction cycle and locking effect of education resources and social space differentiation.

Key words: compulsory education, school district, educational equity, social-spatial accessibility, jiaoyufication, Nanjing