GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH ›› 2014, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (8): 1579-1592.doi: 10.11821/dlyj201408016

• Orginal Article • Previous Articles    

The study on the land development process in the border area between Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia

Chengzhong WU1(), Hui DENG2, Shiguang SHU2   

  1. 1. School of Public Administration, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing 100029, China
    2. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2013-10-27 Revised:2014-04-15 Online:2014-08-20 Published:2014-08-10

Abstract:

The border area between Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia is a typical transitional zone between the Mu Us Sandy Land and loess hilly region of northern Shaanxi province, which is the middle part of the transitionally ecological zone in North China and is also an agro-pastoral zone. This area has the sites of many Great Wall sections and castles that were built during different periods and the cultural landscape and natural landscape in this area are highly consistent. So it is a typical area for the study of the influence of human activity on the earth ecological system in different historical periods. In the early Qing Dynasty, this area set up "Jinliudi" to prevent the communication between the Han and Mongolian ethnic groups; Until the late period of the reign of Kangxi, the Hans were permitted to reclaime "Huopandi" in the Mongolia area, and then the government set up "Heijiedi" to restrict the Hans' activity of reclaiming north. However, the trend of private reclamation could not be stopped and in the late Qing Dynasty the policy of migrant reclamation proposed by Yi-Gu formed the pattern of the land use in the border area between Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia. So it is significant to make a research on the land use in this area, which reflected the interactive relation between the human being and the environment in the Qing Dynasty for more than 300 years. Overall, the land use at the junction area of Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia during the Qing Dynasty presented a "southern farmland and northern grassland" pattern. From the actual dividing line, this pattern is extremely stable. From the system boundary, the pattern is "relatively stable". Overall, the pattern experienced a process from establishment to gradual fuzzy and northward movement. The dividing line experienced a process where it moved northward gradually from "two sides" - "big edge" - Kangxi line - Qianlong line - Guangxu line, but it was still "relatively stable, "and" relatively clear". In the pattern and the development of agricultural production during the Qing Dynasty, there was always a "rational cultivation" selection, which was determined by the unique geographical environment and subject to the prevailing political and economic situation impacts. During a long period, government-led reclamation became the main part of reclamation in the Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia region. Political reasons, especially war, is an impor tant factor affecting reclamation in the Inner Mongolia region. In this process, the main body of reclamation of the government and the farmers, underwent a "rational choice" process. This process focused more on the political and economic factors rather than the ecological environment factor.

Key words: Qing Dynasty, the border area between Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia, land development, Huopandi, Heijiedi, development process