GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH ›› 2019, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (2): 297-312.doi: 10.11821/dlyj020170657

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The difference of social integration and its influencing factors by different types of rural migrant enclaves in Shenzhen

Gao YANG1(), Chunshan ZHOU2   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Tourism, Guangdong University of Finance and Economics, Guangzhou 510320, China
    2. School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2017-07-10 Revised:2018-08-11 Online:2019-02-20 Published:2019-02-20

Abstract:

Since the reform and opening up, China's urbanization process has significantly accelerated its pace, with the national resident population urbanization rate increasing from 17.92% in 1978 to 56.1% in 2015. However, in late 2015, the national registered population urbanization rate is only 39.9%, which means that more than 200 million migrant workers are in the semi-urbanization state. For a long time, the separate administration of urban and rural areas has driven the migrant workers away from the urban system, making it difficult for them to enjoy the urban social security and social services like the urban citizens, which has brought about the institutional or non-institutional exclusion when they move into the urban areas. As a result, in the current process of urbanization in China, how to promote the social integration of migrant workers in the urban areas has become an important research topic. This paper selects Shenzhen, a metropolis with many migrant workers, as the research case. It focuses on the social integration of the three evolution types of rural migrant enclaves from the perspective of spatial differences. Based on the 1990, 2000 and 2010 census data in Shenzhen, this paper divides the evolution process of rural migrant enclaves into three types by using the location quotient, including the growing type, the stable type and the decaying type, and analyzes the differences of migrant worker social integration in Luofang village, Qinghu village and Gongle village respectively. It also carries out a questionnaire survey in the three types of rural migrant enclaves in Shenzhen in 2016, and explores the status and the influencing factors of migrant worker social integration in Shenzhen. The research findings are as follows: (1) Social integration of migrant workers in Shenzhen includes community integration, economic integration, social integration, cultural integration and psychological integration. (2) Luofang village has the highest level of social integration, followed by Gongle village and Qinghu village. Luofang village ranks first in terms of community integration, social integration and psychological integration. Gongle village has the highest economic integration. And Qinghu village enjoys the highest cultural integration. (3) Social integration of migrant workers is jointly influenced by community support, vocational skills, family size, length of residence in Shenzhen, and the age. Social integration in Luofang village is mainly influenced by community support, community function, the age and marital status, while social integration in Gongle village is mainly influenced by vocational skills, marital status and the age, and Qinghu village mainly by community support and length of residence in Shenzhen. (4) The most crucial factor contributing to the improvement of economic integration of migrant workers is not the rise of education level, but the improvement of vocational skills and the obtainment of vocational qualification certificates. Additionally, gender and community involvement have positive impact on community integration and negative impact on social integration, meaning that the more community activities one female participates in, the lower social integration and the higher community integration she will have.

Key words: migrant workers, rural migrant enclaves, social integration, influencing factor, Shenzhen