Content of Crime Geography in our journal

        Published in last 1 year |  In last 2 years |  In last 3 years |  All
    Please wait a minute...
    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    Spatiotemporal characteristics and formation mechanism of child trafficking in China based on "successful cases"
    Gang LI, Huijuan WANG, Ran TAN, Ying FU
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2017, 36 (12): 2505-2520.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201712019
    Abstract1336)   HTML19)    PDF (6948KB)(851)      

    Criminal child trafficking has caused huge losses and damage to society and families, which, in recent years, has drawn considerable attention. Current studies on the topic have made little progress because of the lack of relevant empirical research and overall knowledge, particularly about the macroscopic features of child trafficking in China. Consequently, based on 647 pieces of data for children who have successfully found their relatives, including parents, through the online public platform "Baobeihuijia", the sociodemographic and spatiotemporal features and formation mechanism of child trafficking in China were examined. SPSS and ArcGIS analysis methods were used from the perspective of crime geography. This study found that the main purpose of trafficking was for forced adoption, and the total number of trafficked male children is higher than that of female children. The trafficking ages are closely related to sex, with younger ages at higher risk. The probability of being abused and the probability of recovery fluctuates notably with age. Trafficking migration happens more frequently between rural areas. The number of child trafficking cases since 1930 generally increased with some fluctuations and peaked during the 1980s and 1990s. The monthly changes are affected by temperature and air quality, and are related to the frequency and intensity of population migration. The average period of captivity of a trafficked child is 21.28 years, and there is a weak negative correlation between age and length of captivity. The core areas of supply are concentrated in Southwest China, while those of demand are mainly in South China and North China. The two crime flows have formed between the three crime areas: the southern route was from Southwest to South China and the northern route was from Southwest to North China. Much larger flows of child trafficking occurred on the southern route than on the northern route. Both supply and demand crimes were found in the country's half southeast of the Heihe-Tengchong Line. Child trafficking presented a geographical proximity effect, and reflux phenomena occurred in several provinces and cities. The "gradient" difference of the factors between different regions is favorable to the "push-pull" effect of trafficking migration. Finally, recommendations are offered from different aspects and levels for crime prevention and control.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Spatial heterogeneity of micro-spatial factors' effects on street robberies: A case study of DP peninsula
    Chong XU, Lin LIU, Suhong ZHOU, Chao JIANG
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2017, 36 (12): 2492-2504.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201712018
    Abstract952)   HTML6)    PDF (6534KB)(347)      

    Urban crime has increasingly become a major issue in the context of rapid urbanization in China. Investigating the patterns and effects of spatial factors on urban crime is of great importantce for urban public safety and security. The relationship between robbery and spatial factors has long been a popular topic in crime research. Focusing on the DP peninsula of H City as the study area and using a total number of 373 street robbery incidences obtained from the Public Security Bureau Call for Service Data in the period of 2006-2011, this study examines the spatial heterogeneity in the effects of micro-spatial factors on street robberies by Moran's I, ordinary least squared regression (OLS) model and geographically weighted regression (GWR) model. Firstly, a theoretical framework is developed for analyzing the impacts of micro scale spatial factors on street robbery. Those micro scale spatial variables are identified based on two criminal justice theories - routine activities theory and rational choice theory. Those variables include the number of bus stops, the number of intersections, the length of road net, the distance to the nearest police station, the degree of mixed land use, and the distance to the nearest exit of the peninsula. Secondly, based on the kernel density estimation approach, the variation of crime density is estimated for each grid and is modeled as a function of those contextual micro-spatial variables. The number of micro-spatial variables was cut down with the OLS model test. The analytical results show that spatial heterogeneity exists in the effects of micro-spatial factors on street robberies in the DP peninsula by GWR model test. Especially, the number of bus stops has both positive and negative effects on the crime density, and the effects vary significantly and spatially. The results shed new light on the effects of the spatial factors on crime rate at local scale and suggest the pitfalls of the global averaging model. Overall, the proposed method in this study has the potential to help local police department to identify micro-spatial factors areas with high crime density more explicitly and thus could improve the effectiveness of crime control and prevention efforts centered on street robberies.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Impacts of community environment on residential burglary based on rational choice theory
    Luzi XIAO, Lin LIU, Guangwen SONG, Suhong ZHOU, Dongping LONG, Jiaxin FENG
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2017, 36 (12): 2479-2491.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201712017
    Abstract938)   HTML9)    PDF (2498KB)(504)      

    Residential burglary is one of the common property crimes in China, which has attracted the attention from many scholars. Domestic literatures of residential burglary mainly focus on its spatial pattern and try to explain why some places suffer more crimes than other places do. Although some of them have explored how social environment and natural environment affect residential burglary, they failed to consider the complex characteristics of population and housing in the context of China's rapid urbanization. To address this, rational choice theory is applied to explain the relationship between community environment and residential burglary in ZG city, one of the biggest cities in the south of China. Using the data of residential burglary, census and road network from 226 police districts, a negative binomial regression model is estimated. Results show that both of the population characteristics and the housing characteristics have significant impacts on burglary. In terms of population characteristics, police districts with more highly educated intellectuals suffer less residential burglaries, while those with more young and middle-aged migrant workers suffer more. As for housing characteristics, police districts with more ordinary commercial residential buildings are easier to attract residential burglars, and those with more public-owned housing can effectively reduce the residential burglary rate. In addition to population and housing characteristics, the results also show that the density of road network has significant impact on residential burglary, while the density of bus lines has no effect on it. In conclusion, the balance of the perceived risk and reward of different environments would affect the spatial distribution of burglaries. Residential burglars roughly follow the rule of "safety first, benefit second" when committing crimes. This study can shed light on how population and housing characteristics influence the spatial pattern of residential burglary in China, and provide suggestions on crime prevention and control to the police.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Pattern and model of residential criminal risk based on social space in Guangzhou, China
    Yang WANG, Lixia JIN, Hong'ou ZHANG, Kangmin WU, Changjian WANG, Gengzhi HUANG
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2017, 36 (12): 2465-2478.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201712016
    Abstract1020)   HTML8)    PDF (8694KB)(324)      

    The spatial distribution of inner-city crime rates and crime risks is a topic of great concern in the fields of criminal geography and urban geography. Many empirical studies have shown that inner city criminal behaviors exhibit distinct spatial differentiation characteristics. This is of great importance to pattern analysis of real crime, especially has greater practical significance for its role in predicting patterns of urban crime risk. Because of restrictions related to the difficulty of acquiring real crime data and issues of confidentiality, there are currently few academic summaries of crime risk patterns and model results for Chinese inner-city residents.

    Using social disorganization theory, the criminal risks of 118 neighborhoods were evaluated by the characteristics of social space in Guangzhou. The comprehensive evaluation system of property criminal risks and violent criminal risks are composed of social factors, including a floating population, sex and age, income, unemployment, education, matrimony, occupation, and housing. The scores of criminal risks in terms of neighborhoods were then examined based on information entropy. The heterogeneities of criminal risks in four layers of a circle were subsequently captured by GDI. On this basis, hot spots of criminal risks were explored by methods of spatial autocorrelation (GMI, LMI). Finally, the model and dynamics of spatial patterns were summarized according to the results obtained.

    The results show that: (1) there exists obvious spatial differentiation for criminal risks in Guangzhou. The criminal risk in the old city is the highest, and that in the core area is the lowest. The differentiation of property risks and violent criminal risks in the inner circles are different, and (2) the spatial correlation and agglomeration of criminal risks are obvious in this city. Hot spots of criminal risks are located in the old city and the western fan-shaped area. (3) The curve corresponding to property criminal risk shows a "U" shape from the city center to the periphery. Moreover, the curve of violent criminal risk is a "wave" shape. Their spacial models show the "circle layer + fan shape".

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Cited: CSCD(1)
    Spatial-temporal patterns of burglary at multiple scales: The case of DP peninsula in H city, China
    Lin LIU, Chao JIANG, Suhong ZHOU, Kai LIU, Chong XU, Jingjing CAO
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2017, 36 (12): 2451-2464.   DOI: 10.11821/dlyj201712015
    Abstract1189)   HTML13)    PDF (6720KB)(545)      

    With an aim of exploring main behavioral patterns of criminals in a specific region, this research analyzed the spatial-temporal distribution and shift patterns of urban burglary hotspot in the DP peninsula of H city, China. Calls for service data on burglary crime during 2006-2010 were obtained from the Public Security Bureau of H city, and several field investigations on residents' behavior and geographic environment were carried out. Based on the 1068 burglary incidents geocoded in space, the temporal, spatial, and spatial-temporal patterns of burglary were depicted with standardized crime intensity index and kernel density estimation. Thereafter, a theoretical framework for analyzing the causes of these spatial-temporal patterns of burglary was constructed, which was then examined based on the materials collected from field investigations. Apart from qualitative analysis, the box-plot was used to discern the impact of "attractiveness" and "accessibility" on burglary occurrence. The empirical results showed that burglary incidents were not evenly distributed in time and space in the DP peninsula, and obvious spatial-temporal patterns of crime shift at multiple scales can be consistently observed. At the "month of year" scale, burglaries were most concentrated in commercial communities along the main roads at the end of the year, while at the "time of day" scale, the burglary hotspots shifted along the roads as time goes on. At the "day of month" scale, two crime shift patterns can be clearly observed around the main hotpots in the western and central parts of the DP peninsula. In particular, the centripetal distribution of shifting crime hotspots in space highly resembles the shift patterns of individual burglars' movement patterns. These spatial-temporal crime patterns indicated that most burglars in DP peninsula were rational, as these patterns were generated from the heterogeneous couplings of agents and environment in different spatial-temporal locations. Most burglaries happened in the communities with relatively high expected value and relatively low guardianship level. The conjunctive analysis of the impacts of "attraction" and "accessibility" showed that the accessibility factor played a much more important role in the occurrence of burglary, which further demonstrated the critical role of "opportunity" for potential burglars. Overall, this study showed the promise of criminal profiling based on aggregate crime incidents data in a specific region.

    Table and Figures | Reference | Related Articles | Metrics
    Cited: CSCD(3)