Peng Hua was a professor at Sun Yat-sen University who was long devoted to Danxia Landform research and geographic tourism. In retrospect, Peng's achievements can be introduced from three aspects. First, through seeking overseas collaboration and applying for nomination of world natural heritage sites, he made a great practical contribution in promoting Danxia Landform as an internationally known heritage. Second, concerning his academic contribution, Peng produced a wealth of nuanced insights in multiple aspects of Danxia Landform, including, but by no means confined to, its typology and evolution and the distribution of red beds. Equally, he systematically compared Danxia landform with many others, both in and outside China. Additionally, in recent years, he made benchmark progress by successfully extending the scope of research on red beds, including its underground and above ground surfaces, such as geological structure, rock properties, geomorphological evolution, natural hazards, soil erosion, land degradation, and its socioeconomic development. Also, Peng Hua initiated the national survey of Danxia Landform and constructed its data platform. Third, in addition to research on Danxia Landform, he devised multiple significant concepts in the fields of tourism planning, tourism culture, urban tourism and regional tourism development. Particularly, the concept of 'Broad Tourism', which was proposed by Peng Hua, has had a massive impact on the academic community of Chinese tourism studies. Based on this concept, he proposed a number of innovative theories and research methods, such as the system and mechanism of tourism, development stages of tourism destinations, integration of tourism exploitation and city construction, market classification analysis, and correspondence analysis of products and demands. To a considerable extent, there is no exaggeration in arguing that these theories provide a bird's-eye view of the tourism development, clarify the differences and inter-connections among the direct, involved, and supportive systems and mobilize the role of tourism in regional development. All in all, Peng's achievements reflect his openness, overall awareness, and optimal portfolio, which helps researchers keep a comprehensive view in dealing with more subtle research of geography.
The western United States and southeastern China, featured by landscapes of red cliffs, are major distribution regions of red beds in the world. It is of great value to make a comparative study on red beds and landform development in these two regions. Based on geologic literature analysis and field investigation, this study summarizes the distribution, age, geologic background, lithology, and geomorphic features of red beds in the western United States. Then, a comparison with Danxia landform in southeast China was conducted. It reveals that red bed landform in the western United States and Danxia landform in southeast China are erosional landform developed on red beds, with red cliffs as a remarkable geomorphic feature. However, due to differences in regional geologic background, material basis, and the dominant exogenic force, specific geomorphic features in these two areas are not exactly the same. Red beds in the western United States were mainly deposited in a huge back-arc basin during the period from Triassic to Jurassic. Although depositional environment for these red beds are complex, most of them are continental deposits, especially eolian deposit. In terms of lithology, the majority of red beds in the western United States are composed of fine-grained sandstones, siltstones or mudstones, with very few conglomerates. In terms of geomorphic development of red beds in this region, the downcutting process by flowing streams has been playing a dominant role, creating relatively simple red bed landform types that are characterized by a geomorphic combination of plateau and canyons. As for Danxia landform in southeast China, red beds were deposited in Cretaceous in small and medium-sized rift basins or depression basins. They are all continental deposits, mainly composed of coarse-grained clastic rocks. In aspect of landform development, the controlling exogenic factor is lateral erosion by streams, which produces various types of red bed landforms, with peak clusters and hoodoos as overall landscape feature.
Tourism has long been adopted as a means to revitalizing and urbanizing rural areas, and its significant role recently is mirrored in the Rural Revitalization Strategy. Actually, in some villages, such as the Shuiji village of Taining county, Fujian, which is selected in this study, tourism not only plays an essential role in revitalizing the local area. A collaborative governance model has also emerged over the course of the urbanization, which, nevertheless, still fails to seduce many scholars and researchers insofar. This article, thus, contributes to nuanced insights into this new governance model as well as the mechanism of tourism urbanization in Shuiji village. Specifically, despite embracing multi-stakeholders' collaboration and negotiation, this model, still highlights, if hardly prioritize, the roles of a few key agents, notably, but not exclusively, villagers, overseas corporations and the local government. Precisely, it should be first recognized that the local state usually plays an essential part in integrating resources, initiating institutional construction, directing local economic development and negotiating with different stakeholders, whose interests might vary from one to another. Whilst, possessing their land rights and modernized life style villages are usually inspired to actively interact and negotiate with other stakeholders. In recent years, it has already become the fashion that Chinese local governments strive to attract overseas developers and corporations to invest and manage tourism projects in rural areas. Their inclusion might stimulate locals' income. Nevertheless, to realize the collaborative governance mode is never easy, and its success apparently relies upon multiple factors, primarily including effective institutional supply, reasonable division of labor, flexible design of property right system, market rules for realizing distributive justice and rational interaction and balance of power among stakeholders. As a joint effort of all these factors, it is most likely to achieve common interests among stakeholders in rural areas. And resources could be redistributed effectively either, so as to respectively facilitate the urbanization progress and local tourism and economic development. All in all, the collaborative governance, to a considerable extent, could be treasured as an effective way to promote rural tourism urbanization. And tourism-led urbanization mode is unambiguously quite useful in enriching the case studies concerning new-type urbanization in rural areas and paving the way for effective governance of rural transformation in the foreseeable future.