As the strategic core regions of national economic development, the urban agglomerations in the eastern coastal area of China has played a critical role in the implementation of innovation-driven development strategy and construction of the innovative country. Based on the dataset of innovation input and output spanning the 2001-2015 period, the SFA method and spatial Durbin model are applied to measure and examine the innovation efficiency and its influencing factors and spatial spillover effect in the five major urban agglomerations. Our results suggest that the innovation efficiency of five major urban agglomerations showed a steady increase over the studied period. Among the five urban agglomerations, the innovation efficiency in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region rises slowly while that of Shandong Peninsula has increased relatively fast. The growth rate and average of innovation efficiency in the Yangtze River Delta fell behind the Shandong Peninsula and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Meanwhile, innovation efficiency in core cities of urban agglomerations is low, although they have high-input in innovation resources. Moreover, there is a significantly positive spatial spillover effect of innovation efficiency between cities in the five urban agglomerations. Economic development, agglomeration economies, FDI, the quality of labor force, the financial support by government, infrastructure, secondary industrial ratio and high-tech industries have direct and indirect effects on innovation efficiency in the urban agglomerations.
This paper analyzed the spatial-temporal pattern of the degree of coordination between economic and environmental development in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta from 2006 to 2016 by means of entropy method, Theil index, Markov chain and spatial autocorrelation, and then explored the influencing factors with Tobit model. The results showed that: (1) The degree of coordination between economic and environmental development of the three major urban agglomerations grew continuously from 2006 to 2016. In addition, the differences between the cities gradually narrowed. (2) Path dependence played a role in the evolution of the level of economic and environmental coordination. However, the degree of coordination between economic and environmental development tended to reach a higher level with the passage of time. (3) Cities with higher administrative levels and some developed cities along rivers or the sea continued to be at a higher level of degree of coordination between economic and environmental development. (4) The spatial characteristics of the degree of coordination between economic and environmental development of the three major urban agglomerations had changed from decentralization to agglomeration. (5) Regarding the type of development, the economically developed cities tended to develop simultaneously with the environment. (6) Energy consumption, progress in science and technology, investment in fixed assets, dependence on foreign investment and ownership structure have impacts on the degree of coordination between economic and environmental development of the three urban agglomerations as a whole and each urban agglomeration, but the significant degree of the influence of each factor is different.
With the transformation of China's urbanization, how to measure the coupling and coordination relationship between population, land and economy in the process of urbanization, and explore the temporal and spatial dynamics of its evolution process, has become an important scientific issue in the study of new urbanization in human geography. By constructing the model of coupling coordination degree, based on the coordinated development level of each subsystem in the process of urbanization in the Yangtze River Delta in the past 16 years, this paper analyzes the interaction process of urbanization coupling coordination, and explores the coupling mechanism of the formation of urbanization coordination space agglomeration in the study region by using spatial variogram, LISA time-space transition and other methods. The results show that: (1) with the remarkable improvement of population, land and economic urbanization level in the region, the evolution of the overall and the coupling coordination of population-land urbanization, land-economy urbanization and population-economy urbanization degree shows a steady convergence phenomenon; (2) the spatial agglomeration degree of the coupling coordination degree of urbanization is increasing year by year, and the scope of spatial correlation has been expanding continuously, basically forming a spatial pattern of "one pole alone, triangle core, peripheral low-level"; (3) from the perspective of the urbanization coupling level transition path of each city, most of the cities show a synergistic growth trend, indicating that the overall coupling coordination degree has obvious path dependence and space locking characteristics; (4) the evolution of urbanization coupling coordination level from the stability and equilibrium to polarization agglomeration state mainly comes from the interaction of land-economy, and the evolutionary power from polarization to equilibrium state comes more from population-land interaction. The study of the interaction process and mechanism of urbanization coordination provides a theoretical basis and direction for the construction and coordinated development of the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration.
Urban agglomeration is not only the main form of new urbanization, but also the incubator of innovation. Theoretically, there is a complex interaction between urbanization subsystem and innovation subsystem in urban agglomeration. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration is a national-level urban agglomeration designated by the national new urbanization planning, and it takes "the new engine of national innovation-driven economic growth" as its core function positioning. Therefore, exploring the coupling relationship between urbanization process and innovation and development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration is beneficial to understand the relationship between urbanization and innovation and the development of this urban agglomeration. The comprehensive evaluation index system of urbanization and innovation is constructed by combing the internal theoretical relationship between two subsystems of urbanization and innovation. With the help of coupling coordination degree model and geo-detector factor detection method, this paper analyzes the evolution process and mechanism of coupling coordination relationship between urbanization and innovation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration. The findings: (1) The comprehensive level of urbanization and innovation in the study area presents a trend of steady growth, and the coupling and coordination relationship between urbanization and innovation also develops in a good direction on the whole, but the comprehensive level and coupling relationship are different in space. Specifically, the gap between the high level of Beijing and Tianjin and the overall low level of 11 cities in Hebei is obvious. (2) The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration has been characterized by the coupling coordination type of innovation lag since 2007. Moreover, most of the cities in recent years show the type of coupling coordination of innovation lag, which can be clearly concluded that the main reason for the coupling coordination level of this urban agglomeration in the past period of time is that the innovation level is relatively inadequate to support the urbanization. (3) The interaction between urbanization and innovation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration is very significant, especially the impact of economic urbanization and social urbanization on innovation, and the impact of innovation resources on urbanization is more prominent. It is also found that the role of innovation ability in promoting urbanization is relatively inadequate during the study period. In the future, the key direction of promoting the coordination level of urbanization and innovation coupling in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration is to accelerate the improvement of urban agglomeration and the comprehensive level of innovation in each city.