The COVID-2019 pandemic has a huge impact on tourism industry, and mastering the spatial and temporal characteristics of tourists' travel behavior during the period is very crucial for the recovery and the development of the tourism industry. This study adopts time series statistics and complex network analysis to compare and examine the network evolution features of Hong Kong before and during the COVID-19 pandemic based on the comments data generated from TripAdvisor website in 2019 and 2020. The results show that: (1) Tourists' travel behavior patterns have changed to a certain degree, and they prefer to visit a small number of destinations during an itinerary. (2) Key destinations still play important roles in connecting other destinations, but the tourism community formed around the key destinations has varied from extremely dense to relatively sparse gathering. (3) The number of tourists in extremely hot destinations has been greatly declined, those destinations with fewer tourists and relatively far away from the downtown have attracted more attention. Moreover, industrial destinations have been always the most popular type of tourism destination.
As a public health emergency, the COVID-19 has led to a devastating consequence, such as casualties and property losses on a global scale. Since February 2020, in order to prevent the spread of the epidemic as well as to promote the resumption of work and production, governments at all levels across China successively decided to take action and introduce the Health QR (quick response) Code Policy. What is known is that the Health QR Code Policy has become an important means and practice for effectively preventing and controlling the disastrous epidemic in China up to now. Based on the Event History Analysis (EHA) of the diffusion time and influencing factors of 295 cities at and above the prefecture level in China, this paper explores the spatio-temporal process and mechanism of the rapid policy implementation in tackling the pandemic across China, what is worth paying attention to is that the policy was first initiated and adopted by a provincial government. The findings are as follows: (1) The cities with higher digitization and economic strength would have a faster response to adopt the Health QR Code Policy. (2) What is worth considering is that the "learning" and "competition" behaviors among governments of neighboring cities would speed up the diffusion of the Health QR Code Policy, while the vertical guidance pressure of provincial governments did not play a significant role. (3) During the COVID-19, policy entrepreneurs have played a significant role in public emergency and become a powerful force that can accelerate the diffusion of Health QR Code Policy. (4) The epidemic situation of each city would affect the transmission rate of the Health QR Code Policy. There is no doubt that the geographical distance from the epidemic hotspots would also affect the governments to adopt the Health QR Code Policy in a short period. This paper, by analyzing the diffusion motivations of the Health QR Code Policy during the COVID-19 pandemic, could provide a predominant summary of experience and policy suggestions for understanding the formulation of emergency policies as well as the diffusion mechanism in the context of public crisis.
This paper predicts China's economic growth rate in 2020 under the influence of the COVID-19. We measure the impact of the COVID-19 on China's regional economic distribution quantitatively. This paper predicts China's economic growth in 2020 from three scenarios: pessimistic, moderate, and optimistic. According to the severity of the epidemic in various regions, the historical data is used to predict the economic data of each province in 2020. Then, the Dagum Gini method is used to analyze the changes of China's regional economic structure after the epidemic. Even in the pessimistic scenario, China's economy can still achieve 1.90% growth in 2020, and is fully capable of achieving the “six stability” and "six guarantees" tasks to ensure the stable and healthy operation of the economy and society; under the moderate and optimistic scenarios, it is expected that China's economic growth rate in 2020 will reach 2.20% and 3.74%, respectively. The analysis of regional differences shows that the trend of regional differences is expanding, the imbalance within the region is intensified, and the differences between regions become larger. This paper is helpful to objectively and comprehensively understand the changes of regional economic after COVID-19, and provide policy recommendation for the optimization and adjustment of regional economic policies.
The distribution of China's productivity has focused on production capability and neglected the capacity of production conversion for a long time. Since the outbreak of COVID-19 worldwide in 2020, many cities in China have effectively alleviated the shortage of epidemic prevention materials by production conversion. This makes the urban capacity of production conversion begin to attract attention. This paper discusses the role of industrial relatedness of evolutionary economic geography in urban capacity of production conversion and builds the index system of China's urban capacity of production conversation by using the data of the registration certificate of domestic medical devices on the official website of National Medical Products Administration, Chinese Customs Trade Statistics, Chinese Industrial Enterprises Database, and other statistical data. The results of the study found that: (1) Based on the analysis of actual production conversion of epidemic prevention materials in the first quarter of 2020 in cities of China, the relatedness density can better represent the capacity of production conversion of the city. (2) The index system of China's urban capacity of production conversion with industrial relatedness as the core index can further optimize the evaluation of the urban capacity of production conversion, which provides a scientific reference for how to take both productivity and capacity of production conversion into account at the same time in China's future productivity distribution.
International cooperation is not only the leading force for global exploration of cutting-edge science, but also the best way for global response to problems including resources and environment, climate change, health, public security and other issues. It takes only six months from the discovery of the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) to more than 6 million confirmed cases and 300,000 deaths, which not only proves that the COVID-19 is too contagious to be overcome, but also demonstrates the common destiny of all countries and regions in the era of globalization. In fact, when this outbreak was declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on 30 January 2020 by the WHO, international cooperation is regarded as the key to combating this pandemic. Based on the Web of Science database, this paper systematically reviews the international cooperation on scientific research and its evolution during several major global epidemics. The findings are as follows. In the international cooperation of SARS, H1N1 and Ebola, the United States has been playing a critical role. Meanwhile, Chinese Hong Kong and European countries took the lead in the research of SARS virus and Ebola virus, respectively. By intercepting the COVID-19 research papers on four time nodes, it is found that the cooperation between China and the United States is the constructive framework of the COVID-19 research international cooperation network. In view of the current global pandemic of COVID-19 virus, this article recommends that research institutions in China strengthen the research on COVID-19 virus and vaccines, and actively cooperate with foreign research institutions, especially those countries and regions with severe situations. In the direction of cooperation, the collaboration with U.S. research institutions should be strengthened. In terms of cooperation strategy, it can take advantage of the Hong Kong region to carry out tripartite or multi-party cooperation with relevant foreign research institutions.
The COVID-19 pandemic continues to ravage the world. The key to combating the epidemic is the international cooperation especially to the maintenance of normal and circulating trade for essential drug in the field of health. However, the increasing number of export prohibitions and limits during the epidemic have changed the previous global drug trade. The interdependent relationship in the global antiviral drug trade has been portrayed more and more clearly. This paper analyzed the 2000-2018 global spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of the antiviral drug trade pattern, discussed the product structure and the status change of countries (regions) in the global antiviral drug trade system, and especially revealed the interdependence between China and other countries (regions). The following conclusions were drawn. Firstly, in terms of industrial structure, the global trade system dominated by vaccine products is evolving to be dominated by vaccines and antibiotics. Both drugs are mainly exported to the developed countries like Europe and the US. China mainly exports antibiotics. Secondly, in terms of topology, the global antiviral drug trading network has the typical characteristics of "core-edge" and a small world network. The core of the network has gradually shifted from the United States to Western European countries. Besides, the network communities have gradually gathered, China has gradually separated from American communities and moved closer to Western European communities represented by Germany and Belgium and China's position in the network has become increasingly important. Thirdly, in terms of spatial structure, the global import and export trade of antiviral drug has gradually shifted from decentralization to concentration, forming a global antiviral drug trade system dominated by Europe with the decline of the United States and the rise of the Asian region. Finally, the global trade in antiviral drug has highly overlapped import and export markets. The interdependence between China and developed countries (regions) is gradually deepening, while that between China and countries (regions) along the Belt and Road is relatively low.
The COVID-19 pandemic is considered the biggest crisis confronted with the world after the Second World War, which has brought huge impacts on people’s health and daily life, economic growth and employment as well as national and international governance. Increasing pessimism is buzzing among scholars, critics, entrepreneurs, the mass and even government officials, and views like the end of economic globalization, large-scale spatial restructuring of global supply chains and fundamental change of the world economic governance structure are becoming prevailing on the media. This paper tries to address the issue of the development trend of economic globalization in the post-pandemic era by developing a framework of globalization’s Triangle Structure to understand its dynamics in addition to a summary of the on-going impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. We argue that the spatial fix of capital accumulation, time-space compression led by technological advance and openness of nations are the three major drivers of economic globalization, and the changes and interactions of these three drivers decide the development trend of economic globalization. From such a dynamic viewpoint, economic globalization is an ever-changing integration process without an end but constant fluctuations. The cost of decoupling of nations from globalization would be very huge because they have been highly integrated by global production networks and trade networks and no nation can afford a complete decoupling. The so-called de-globalization phenomena are just short-term adjusting strategies of nations to cope with power reconfigurations brought by economic globalization. The pandemic will have little impacts, or probably nothing, on the spatial fix of capital accumulation and time-space compression led by technological advance, but may temporarily influence some nations' openness. If the pandemic does not last long, economic globalization will resume from the shock soon after the world goes back to normal, and develop and restructure according to its own dynamics. Thus, we tend to believe the pandemic at most slams the brake of globalization and would not be able to put it into reverse. Economic globalization will not stop or reverse, but develop towards a more inclusive stage.
The study of the spatial diffusion and geographical mode of COVID-19 is of great significance for the rational allocation of health resources, the management and response of public health emergencies, and the improvement of public health system in the future. Based on multiple spatio-temporal scale, this paper studied the spatial spreading process of COVID-19 between cities and its evolution characteristics in China, and then explored its influencing factors. The results are shown in the following: the inter-city spreading process of COVID-19 in China mainly experienced six stages, namely, stage I: diffusion in Wuhan, stage II: rapid multi-point diffusion in space, stage III: rapid increase of confirmed cases, stage IV : gradual decrease of new confirmed cases, stage V: the epidemic under control, and stage VI: cases imported from overseas. In the context of globalization and open regional system, the social and economic development of regions are closely related to each other. With the development of fast and convenient high-speed railway network, the spatial characteristic of population migration shows a cross-regional and hierarchical pattern, and forms a certain spatial cascade structure along the transport corridor. Accordingly, the spatial spread of COVID-19 mainly showsthe characteristics of adjacent diffusion, relocation diffusion, hierarchical diffusion, and corridor diffusion. The study found that geographical proximity, population migration and population size, traffic network, epidemic prevention and control measures have significant influence on the spatial diffusion process of COVID-19. Among different modes of transportation, airplanes play agreater role than others in the early stage of the epidemic. In addition, the population flow during the Spring Festival had a certain impact on the spread of the epidemic. In conclusion, to some extent, the spatial spread process and pattern of COVID-19 epidemic reflects the spatial organization pattern of social and economic activities under the "space of flows" network, which is closely related to the geographical proximity, the social and economic linkages between regions, and the spatial an temporal patterns of human activities. From the perspective of geography, this paper analyzed the inter-city spread pattern of COVID-19 epidemic and provided some implications for prevention and control measures against the epidemic in other countries, and also offered some suggestions for China to deal with public health emergency risks in the future.