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    Variations of soil organic C components under different degradation conditions in Napahai wetland reserve
    HU Jin-ming, DONG Yun-xia, YUAN Han, LI Jie, MA Bin-bin
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2012, 31 (1): 53-62.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2012010006
    Abstract1824)      PDF (762KB)(2169)      
    There are four major types of soils in Napahai wetland reserve,northwest Yunnan,i.e.,Abandoned Farmland Mesophytic Meadow Soil(AFMMS),Mesophytic Meadow Soil(MMS),Wet Meadow Soil(WMS),and Marsh Soil(MS),correspondingly their degradation degrees from high to low.Soil organic carbon(SOC),labile organic carbon(LOC) and dissolved organic carbon(DOC) contents and their correlation at three layers(1st layer 0~10 cm,2nd layer 10~20 cm,and 3rd layer 20~30 cm) for the 4 types were investigated.Results showed that except that LOC contents at the 2nd and 3rd layers of AFMMS were slightly higher than those at corresponding layers of MMS,the orders of the contents of SOC,LOC and DOC at the other layers of the 4 soils were AFMMS < MMS < WMS < MS,which clearly reflected the degradation conditions of the 4 soils within the wetland region.From up to down in the soil profiles,soil SOC,LOC and DOC contents of AFMMS,MMS and WMS,as well as the DOC contents of MS,declined from top to down layer;the decrease between the 1st and 2nd layers was significantly larger than that between the 2nd and 3rd layers;while the contents of SOC and LOC of MS increased from the 1st to 2nd layer and then declined to the 3rd layer.LOC/SOC(%) of the 4 soils varied from 8.6 % to 16.8 % and LOC/SOC at 3 layers of the 4 soils was AFMMS > MMS > WMS > MS,which indicated dryer soil had a higher turnover rate of the biological activity of SOC.Except extremely human-disturbed AFMMS,LOC contents are significantly positive to SOC contents for the other 3 types of soils;furthermore,the variations of LOC contents and LOC/SOC(%) have correlations with soil types.Compared with SOC and DOC,LOC is more suitable to detect the changes of wetland SOC pool.The study indicated the variation of wetland hydrology and vegetation controlled by topography has significant influence on the variation of wetland SOC and its labile components;high disturbance(e.g.wetland reclamation and drainage) usually causes obvious loss of wetland SOC and its labile components.For the degraded sub-alpine wetlands like Napahai where significant hydrological changes were observed,hydro-ecological regulation measures should be taken to prevent their further degradation.
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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    Transmission and health risks of mercury in soil-paddy system in Chatian mercury mining area,Fenghuang County,Hunan Province
    LI Yong-hua, SUN Hong-fei, YANG Lin-sheng, LI Hai-rong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2012, 31 (1): 63-70.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2012010007
    Abstract2294)      PDF (440KB)(2419)      
    Mercury(Hg) in paddy soils and rice as well as its translocation and accumulation in Chatian Hg mining area of Fenghuang County,Hunan Province were studied based on field systematic sampling and laboratory analysis.The results showed that Hg concentrations in the paddy soils and rice were significantly enriched,which were primarily due to the high natural geologic background levels and anthropogenic mining activities.The average concentration of Hg in paddy soils,rice root,rice shoots and rice grain in mercury deposit area were,in average,276.6,8.6,5.8 and 2.3 folds of the corresponding parts in the control area,respectively.The concentration of Hg in paddy soils in organic-sulfide form was significant positively correlated with Hg contents in rice roots,rice shoots and rice grain.However,the transfer coefficients of Hg of paddy soils-rice roots and rice roots-rice grain were quite low.The content of Hg in rice grain in Chatian mercury mining area was 0.09±0.04 μg/g,4.5 times of the limited value(0.02 μg/g) of the National Food Sanitary Standard(GB2762-2005).Average daily intake dose(ADD) of Hg of local population ranged from 0.408 to 1.225 μg/(kg·d),mean 0.75 μg/kg body weight per day,exceeding 0.71 μg/(kg·d) of provisional tolerable daily intake(PTDI) recommended by WHO.The local inhabitants faced huge health risk due to high Hg exposure via rice consumption.In addition,Se and Pb were also found to be co-enriched in the rice grain in Chatian mining area,indicating that co-contamination of Hg and Pb may result in great risks to human health in this area.
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    Cited: CSCD(7)
    Assessment of ecological vulnerability on the Tibetan Plateau
    YU Bo-hua, LU Chang-he
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (12): 2289-2295.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011120016
    Abstract2986)      PDF (414KB)(3716)      
    Unstable natural factors and pressures from human activities determine the ecological vulnerability of the Tibetan Plateau.This paper analyzed the factors and mechanism of ecological vulnerability,and developed an index system comprising 3 levels and 10 indicators for the vulnerability assessment.Using multi-source data and ArcGIS spatial analysis tools,this study quantitatively evaluated the degree and its spatial variation of ecological vulnerability on the Tibetan Plateau,based on the above index system.The results show that most parts of the Tibetan Plateau is ecologically fragile,with 74.79% of the area belonging to moderate to extreme-level vulnerability.The map and data of vulnerability classification indicate that the slight and light-level vulnerability area covers 8.33%,which are mainly distributed in the relatively low mountain areas below 3000 m in southeastern Tibet,the northwestern part of the Qilian Mountains,the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains and the southern margin of the Tarim Basin;the moderate-level vulnerability area occupies more than 25.33%,mainly on the north and central Tibetan Plateau and the source region of the Yangtze,Lancang and Yellow rivers;while the heavy and extreme-level vulnerability area covers 49.46%,mainly concentrated in the source region of Yellow River,Qaidam Basin and the zone along 32°N(from 78°E to 92°E).The results contribute to understanding the extent of ecological vulnerability and its spatial difference on the Tibetan Plateau,and help to identify environmental problems,the key fragile factors and measures for ecological protection and rehabilitation in this region.
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    Cited: CSCD(60)
    Valuation of wetland ecosystem services along the Yangtze River in Anqing,Anhui Province
    ZHOU Bao-hua, CAO Jing-jing, ZHU Chao-ping, JIN Bao-shi
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (12): 2296-2304.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011120017
    Abstract2140)      PDF (587KB)(2900)      
    Wetlands of the nature reserve along the Yangtze River in Anqing City,as a part of wetlands in middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River,are the post station of migratory birds moving from East Asia to Australia. In this paper,the economic value of lakes and wetlands along the Yangtze River in Anqing,including water resources value,fishery resource value,land resource value,research and culture value,scientific expedition and tourism value,was studied with market value method,carbon tax method,shadow engineering approach and so on,according to its characteristics.Second,the environmental-function value was evaluated,such as water conservation value,regulation climatic value,flood diversion and storage value,water purification value and so on.Then,the social cultural value was evaluated.Lastly,the total value of different service functions of lakes and wetlands along the Yangtze River in Anqing was 142.49×10 8 yuan.The fishery resource value was most valuable in those functions,with a rate of 18.91% in service value of lakes and wetlands along the Yangtze River in Anqing eco-system,followed by the flood diversion and storage value,accounting for 17.17%.As a result,the above data can provide scientific reference for sustainable utilization of the wetlands along the Yangtze River in Anqing City.
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    Cited: CSCD(23)
    Quantitative assessment of resource and environment security:A case study in mountainous areas of Southwest China
    ZHANG Ji-fei, DENG Wei, LIU Shao-quan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (12): 2305-2315.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011120018
    Abstract1864)      PDF (497KB)(1782)      
    This paper takes mountainous areas of Southwest China(Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,Chongqing Municipality,Sichuan Province),Guizhou Province and Yunnan Province,which are regions bearing huge pressure of resource and environment,as the study area.According to the Pressure-State-Response model,the integrated assessment index system of resource and environment security was established.Using the entropy weight and fuzzy synthetic evaluation method,the general situation of resource and environment security of each province from 1999 to 2009 were assessed quantitatively.The results are shown as follows.(1) The integral security level of the study area was lower,though the development of resource-environment system of each province showed positive momentum.(2) Yunnan had the highest holistic resource and environment security level,followed by Chongqing,Sichuan,Guizhou and Guangxi.(3) The degree of membership curve of each province presented a convergent tendency since 2006,which indicated that the mountainous areas of Southwest China made some progress during the period of the 11th Five-Year Plan(2006~2010),but the whole region has not got rid of the development model of seeking temporary economic growth at the expense of the environment and resources.
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    Cited: CSCD(5)
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (12): 2316-2316.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011120019
    Abstract1280)      PDF (67KB)(2555)      
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    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (12): 2317-2318.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011120020
    Abstract1141)      PDF (116KB)(1650)      
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    Cited: CSCD(1)
    The transport and change of iron species in agricultural drainage of Sanjiang Plain
    WANG Li-xia, YAN Bai-xing, PAN Xiao-feng, ZHU Hui
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (10): 1818-1824.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011100008
    Abstract1709)      PDF (907KB)(1312)      
    Drainage ditches are the important channels for transporting nutriment in agro-ecosystems, and the character of drainage water will threaten ecosystem safety in nearby water bodies. After the fifty years' cultivation of wetlands in Sanjiang Plain, drainage ditch was extensively built and has become an important source and passageway transporting iron into river or even Okhotsk Sea, thus affecting the primary productivity in the North Pacific Ocean. In order to assess the change of iron species from drainage canal to river under long-time cultivation of wetlands and the factors affecting the iron behavior, the samples in main canal and branch canal were collected in wet and dry seasons during 2005 to 2008. The dissolved iron was divided into colloidal iron, complexed iron and ionic iron employing the cross-flow filtrate technique. The results showed that iron often exists in total dissolved iron (TDI) and acid labile iron (ALI) in drainage ditches. The concentration of TDI ranged from 0.34 to 3.99 mg·L -1, and the farming activities including tillage and irrigation contributed to the increase of iron output. The mean concentration of TDI in dry season was higher than that in wet season because of dilution. Generally, iron exists in complexed form (exceeding 60% of TDI), followed by colloidal form (about 20% of TDI) and ionized form. The concentration of TDI was higher in main canal than that in branch canal by changing complexed iron into colloidal and ionic forms. The chemical parameters including pH, cation concentration, HCO 3 -, PO 4 3-, NH 4 +-N, NO 3 -N and TOC were researched, and correlation analysis was made between the chemical parameters and TDI. The analysis showed that the concentration of TDI was controlled by rainfall, and affected by the factors including pH, cation concentration, HCO 3 -, and PO 4 3-. So some field management measures would affect the iron output. For example, application of organic fertilizers would increase TDI transportation whereas the chemical fertilizer decreases TDI output. It is estimated that the transportation of TDI ranged from 45 t to 116 t every year by canal according to the paddy field drainage volume and TDI concentration in the Sanjiang Plain. The chemical change in drainage ditch due to conversion from wetland into cropland may account for a sharp decrease of TDI.
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    Cited: CSCD(2)
    Spatial distribution of topsoil labile organic carbon of Pinus elliottii ecosystem in the central subtropical region
    CHEN Xiao-lin, LI Zhong-wu, WANG Xiao-yan, SHEN Wei-ping, ZHANG Xue, GUO Wang, ZHANG Yue-nan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (10): 1825-1834.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011100009
    Abstract2617)      PDF (963KB)(1375)      
    Labile organic carbon is more sensitive to changes in land management or environment conditions than stable carbon, although it is a smaller fraction of soil organic carbon. It also has a disproportionately large effect on nutrient-supplying capacity and the structural stability of soils. Therefore, the spatial distribution and its influencing factors (topography, vegetation and soil properties) have been analyzed in Pinus elliottii ecosystem of central subtropical region. Results indicated that the mean of soil labile organic carbon was 1.92g/kg, accounting for 29.12% of soil organic carbon, and the coefficient of variability was 46.15%. Labile organic carbon and carbon lability in gully areas were significantly higher than that in slope position. The results of correlation analysis showed that labile organic carbon was negatively correlated with elevation and aboveground biomass of arbor layer, positively correlated with aboveground biomass of shrubs, but highly significantly positive with soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium. Principal component analysis in Canoco showed that the first and second axes were the principal component axes. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and available nitrogen were the first principal component axis affecting labile organic carbon, followed by altitude, pH, total phosphorus and above-ground biomass of shrubs. However, carbon lability had no significant correlation with affecting factors.
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    Cited: CSCD(9)
    Modification and prediction of energy ecological footprint: A case study of Jilin Province
    FANG Kai, SHEN Wan-bin, DONG De-ming
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (10): 1835-1846.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011100010
    Abstract2019)      PDF (1185KB)(1292)      
    Quantitatively measuring the eco-environmental impacts of energy consumption is an important issue for regional sustainable development evaluation. Taking the carbon cycling process of fossil fuel combustion - carbon dioxide emission - land absorption as the research object, some contents of traditional model such as calculation of land carbon absorption capacity are modified by establishing an energy ecological footprint (EEF) model based on net primary productivity. With Jilin Province as an example, the dynamics of EEF and its each land use type supply from 1994 to 2008 are analyzed by using the modified model, and then the effects of land use/cover change(LUCC) on EEF are revealed by calculating ecological effect index. Furthermore, a system dynamic prediction model under the restriction of LUCC is proposed and used to predict the scenarios of EEF defined as three types in the next 15 years. The results show that, during 1994-2008, the EEF per capita of Jilin Province, of which forest, cropland and grassland are the main part, increases from 0.228 hm 2 to 0.524 hm 2, indicating a fast rate, while the grassland degradation has become the primary cause of faster increase in EEF besides the factor of energy consumption since 2003. During 2009-2023, the average annual growth rate of EEF per capita will be 6.36%, 10.73% and 11.43% under the scenarios of low growth, medium growth and high growth, respectively. Meanwhile, the negative ecological effects of LUCC will become one of the main driving forces of the increase in EEF. In view of this, more efforts on natural vegetation especially on the western grassland protection should be made to strengthen the regional comprehensive carbon capability. Compared with the traditional model, the modified model could overcome the defects of excessive simplification and pessimism in evaluation results, which can reflect the eco-environmental impacts of energy consumption more factually and roundly.
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    A landscape pattern analysis-based methodology framework for regional planning environmental assessment (RPEA)
    GUO Huai-cheng, DU Xiao-shang, LIU Yong, ZHOU Feng, HE Cheng-jie
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (9): 1713-1724.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011090015
    Abstract2059)      PDF (1035KB)(1226)      
    A landscape pattern analysis-based methodology framework for Regional Planning Environmental Assessment (RPEA) was proposed in this study. It was developed for solving the shortcomings of the existing RPEA methods on security evaluation and systematical optimization of planned landscape pattern. The criterion for landscape pattern security evaluation and the indicators were established for landscape pattern dynamic analysis, i.e. cumulative environmental effect assessment. The analysis was conducted for population structure, landscape organization openness and landscape heterogeneity. The proposed methodology framework can reflect the main features of landscape pattern security, which will be helpful to carry out systematically dynamic analysis for the changes of regional landscape patterns before and after regional planning, and thus discriminate its defects in security. The developed method has universality, which can be applied to various scales of regional landscape pattern planning and RPEA. It can provide scientific support and practical basis for optimization of regional landscape pattern and industrial layout and enhancing regional landscape pattern security and sustainability. The case study results demonstrate the simplicity, practicability and application value of the proposed methodology framework. Compared with the original results, the security of the optimized landscape pattern was apparently improved. Therefore it can serve as a guide for implementation and management of regional landscape pattern planning. However, due to the limitation of insufficient data and information, the proposed classification criterion of landscape pattern security evaluation is a half quantitative criterion and tentative exploration. The distinction between levels is not fine enough. Further studies can be done to explore and subdivide the security and relatively secure levels, and the relatively secure level and insecure level. But it is believed to be of great value, especially the quantitative relationship between landscape pattern index and its security levels. The corresponding space control method should be the focus in the next studies.
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    Cited: CSCD(6)
    Farm households' behaviors and executive regulations under the compromise of environmental renovation and agricultural business: A case study on SADO Island, Japan
    WANG Dai, ZHANG Wen-zhong, YU Jian-hui
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (9): 1725-1735.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011090016
    Abstract1509)      PDF (1308KB)(1377)      
    Eco-environmental problems, especially those caused by resource shortage and excessive utilization, have become increasingly severe in China along with the high-speed economic development during the past few decades. Therefore, from a microscopic standpoint to analyze the practical problems of sustainable development and environment protection in the developed countries is of great significance to our amendment of regional development theory and implementation of policies and methods. Through four investigations on SADO Island, which is the last habitat for ibis in Japan, and deep interviews with the local government and residents, this paper reveals that after the announcement of ibis reintroduction promotion and creation of wild environment governance for ibis in SADO Island, a considerably large number of local peasants are against this due to the deterioration of agricultural production conditions and an increase in farm business cost. Therefore, the contradiction between environmental governance and regional development emerged and grew over time. The empirical study of Japan indicates that it is imperative to consider the development rights of less developed areas and the living rights of vulnerable groups, and it is of equal importance to allocate benefit from the public interest during the process of promotion for harmonious development between human and nature. Finally, it is urgent for the government to eliminate the inequity of allocation for ecological benefits and other related benefits, and to establish the Payment for Ecological Benefit system without delay.
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    Regional difference and convergence of standardized discharge of industrial waste water in China
    TANG Zhi-peng, LIU Wei-dong, LIU Zhi-gao, WANG Bei
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (6): 1101-1109.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011060013
    Abstract1966)      PDF (900KB)(1465)      
    Water resource is a necessity of life for us. Water pollution is an important restriction factor in the process of China's sustainable development. Water pollutants are mainly from our production and living including industrial waste water, domestic sewage and agricultural waste water. China has reduced discharge of waste water and has strived to protect water environment in recent years, but industrial waste water is still a major source of water pollutants. And with more and more industrial enterprises' establishment and development in China, a large amount of the discharge of industrial waste water can do great damage to the water environment and pose a serious threat to the safety of drinking water because industrial waste water contains large quantities of heavy metal ions. So on the one hand we should know the regional difference of standardized discharge of industrial waste water among these regions including temporal difference in each region and spatial difference in each year, on the other hand we must know whether the regional difference is becoming larger in order to make the relevant policies on water protection. Based on the attainment rate of industrial waste water standardized discharge, this paper examines regional difference of standardized discharge of China's industrial waste water among eight regions through σ convergence and β convergence during the period 1998—2008. The results show that there is no significant σ convergence about regional difference of standardized discharge of industrial waste water in China's eight regions during the same period. From the aspect of the time we can see that the spatial difference is not always becoming small in each year, although the trend is becoming small. As far as the temporal difference of China's eight regions is concerned, the in regional difference Southwest China is the largest among eight regions, while eastern coastal region presents the smallest difference. The model of absolute β convergence and conditional β convergence shows that the overall regional difference of standardized discharge of industrial waste water in China is becoming small, initial conditions in each region are critical factors narrowing the differences, and annual growth rate of industrial value-added plays a role as well. Thus these results could help to provide suggestions to policies making for water protection.
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    Cited: CSCD(7)
    Biomass changes and geostatistical analysis of Xiao Hinggan region in recent 30 years
    MAO Xue-gang, LI Ming-ze, FAN Wen-yi, JIANG Huan-huan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (6): 1110-1120.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011060014
    Abstract1981)      PDF (1141KB)(1740)      
    Based on remote sensing data from three periods of 1980s, 1990s, and the period after 2000 as well as the data of plots in forest resource inventory over the same periods, forest biomass of Xiao Hinggan region was estimated by using the remote sensing information model. With the combination of GIS and geo-statistics, this paper studies the temporal changes in forest biomass, spatial autocorrelation and heterogeneity of Xiao Hinggan region in the three periods of 1980s, 1990s, and the period after 2000. Results indicated that the overall biomass presented fluctuation change in the research area from the 1980s to the 2000s. With relatively low biological value, low-grade biomass was dominant in the 1980s, and there was contiguous distribution of low-value biomass, with high degree of spatial autocorrelation. However, the random factors of medium and higher biomass increased, indicating the man-made interference degree continuously strengthened. In the 1990s the main advantages biomass in the study area was medium biomass, which evolved from dominant low-grade biomass in the 1980s. The changes in the 10 years showed that overall biomass tended to recover. For the data were mainly concentrated in the late 1990s when the Natural Forest Protection Project (NFPP) had been launched that made the forest status towards a good direction, the overall biological value was increased. After 2000 the spatial autocorrelation of overall biomass in the research area was not high, but medium and higher biomass was similar and changed evenly in every direction. Median biomass was distributed widely, while high-value biomass was of small patches with fragmentation, and the spatial variability caused by random factors such as man-made disturbance or the factor of spatial autocorrelation was just similar, and appeared a stability trend.
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    Cited: CSCD(5)
    The numerical simulation on green water cycle of typical vegetation types in karst area
    WEN Zhi-qun, YANG Sheng-tian, SONG Wen-long, BAI Xiao-hui, GAO Fang, LIU Wei
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2010, 29 (10): 1841-1852.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2010100012
    Abstract2543)      PDF (1003KB)(1885)      

    Green water is vital to vegetation recovery in karst area. Considering the processes in green water cycle, this paper coupled the canopy interception process, soil moisture movement process and evaportranspiration process, and built a green water cycle processes model to simulate and analyze green water cycle of typical vegetation types in karst area. Under the rainfall simulation experiment calibration and soil moisture monitor calibration, the model was extended to regional scale, and was used to simulate the green water cycle in a karst area, Guizhou Province, China, during October 2005 to March 2006. The results show that: First, most of the rainfall during this period turns into green water through canopy interception and infiltration into soil, which totally occupies 87.4% of rainfall and is supplied for vegetation ecosystem water use. Second, there are many differences in green water cycle processes of different vegetation types in the study area. The percentages of green water of different vegetation types are 93.3%, 93.2%, 91.5%, 81.9% for shrubs, coniferous woodland, mix woodland, grassland respectively. It can be concluded that with the vegetation recovery from grassland to shrubs and woodland in the study area, there will be more and more rainfall turning into green water which is used by the vegetation ecosystem and benefits the vegetation recovery. Third, the changes of green water cycle between months in different vegetation types share the same characteristics. The green water storage is increasing in October, January, and March in all vegetation types, and is decreasing in November, December, and February. In this period, the amount of green water is much greater than that of blue water, and the green water storage is increasing overall. Drought is unlikely to occur during October to March and the green water storage is supplemented in this period before the "spring drought" and "summer drought" in this karst area.

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    Cited: CSCD(9)
    Environmental influence evaluation of land development and arrangement based on scenarios analysis: A study on Lianshui County, Jiangsu Province
    FANG Bin, YANG Ye, LEI Guang-hai
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2010, 29 (10): 1853-1862.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2010100013
    Abstract2417)      PDF (843KB)(2272)      

    Land development and consolidation plan is bound to affect ecological environmental conditions within the planned area. However, the specific evaluation method, index system and modeling algorithm should be standardized. By taking Lianshui County of Jiangsu Province as an example, Land Development and Arrangement Plan of Lianshui County (2000~2010) was analyzed, and the affection was compared by a evaluation model of scenarios. The result shows that the influence in 1997 was lower than in 2000 in Lianshui County. This can be explained as: during the three years, not only the occupation of cultivated land has been strictly controlled, but more cultivated lands have been transferred also. Environmental quality declined in 2010 because of without planning. The possible reason is that the construction of land fragmented farmland and unutilized land, which increases density of plaques. In comparison of future scenarios without planning and with planning in 2010, it is indicated that eco-environmental conditions could obviously increase by 0.6736 percentage point. This shows that proper land development and consolidation plan plays an important role in promoting a healthy eco-environment within the planned area.

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    Ecological water effect of returning orchard to cultivated land in apple base of gully region of the Loess Plateau
    HE Fu-hong, JIANG Wei-guo, HUANG Ming-bin
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2010, 29 (10): 1863-1869.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2010100014
    Abstract2650)      PDF (1644KB)(1622)      

    Recently, a lot of orchards in the gully region of the Loess Plateau have been degenerated, which should be returned to cultivated land. But the ecological water effect of returning orchard to cultivated land is still unclear. Taking the Wangdonggou watershed as a case study, this paper chose three land use types such as peak period orchard, waste orchard and cultivated land converted from orchard, the ecological water effects of returning orchard to cultivated land have been studied based on the soil moisture data of 1986, 2002 and 2009. The results show that: (1) The mean soil moisture content and water storage of wasted orchard and cultivated land converted from orchard are significantly bigger than those of the peak period orchard in 2009. With the orchard disuse or return to cultivated land, the soil moisture content will increase significantly. (2) When the land use changes from peak period orchard in 2002 to cultivated land in 2009, the mean soil moisture content of 200-600 cm profile of cultivated land converted from orchard is 10.62%, which is significantly bigger than that of the peak period orchard (8.53%). (3) Dried soil layer affected by biota use is a common soil water phenomenon in the peak period orchard, wasted orchard, and cultivated land converted from orchard, which is an urgent ecological problem that need to be resolved.

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    Cited: CSCD(8)
    Review on the methods for soil carbon sequestration at regional scale
    CHANG Rui-ying, LIU Guo-hua, FU Bo-jie
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2010, 29 (9): 1616-1628.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2010090008
    Abstract3038)      PDF (169KB)(2737)      

    The study on soil carbon sequestration at regional scale is of great significance, as the Kyoto Protocol and other accords of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change have prescribed that carbon (C) sequestration in soil can be included in the measures to meet the Quantified Emission Limitation or Reduction Commitments in the first period (2008~2012). The methods on estimating the amount of C sequestration in soil at regional scale were reviewed, and the development of the methods was prospected. According to the estimation accuracy and principle, the approaches could be categorized into four methods: (1) Simple model, which scaled up the estimation of SOC sequestration from local plots to region simply or by statistical model, was used widely but with low accuracy. The method was recommended in the region without sufficient data. (2) Inventory method, which was used in soil database of different periods to estimate the change of soil carbon between the two periods, could be used to estimate the amount of carbon sequestered in soil in the past with higher precision, but it could not be used to predict the change of soil carbon in the future. (3) Empirical model including the Book-keeping Model and the Tier 1 and Tier 2 recommended in IPCC Report (2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories) could provide environmental interpretation in soil carbon sequestration with no mechanism explanation. (4) Mechanism model developed from soil organic matter mechanism model (e.g. CENTURY model) based on geographic information system (GIS) could estimate SOC sequestration with highest accuracy among these four methods, which could also provide mechanism explanation in the process of the change in SOC. In summary, each type of the four methods had its own limitation and applicability, so the methods should be chosen based on the site-specific conditions and the research purposes. Finally, based on the analysis of some gaps in the mechanism of soil carbon sequestration, scaling, scenario analysis and soil organic matter model, we proposed that the integrated model,based on GIS, coupling SOM mechanism model, land-use model, econometrical model and regional scale eco-hydrological model, would be developed for studying soil carbon sequestration at regional scale in the future.

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    Cited: CSCD(12)
    Division of the geo-ecological boundary in Qinling Mountain Range based on the composition and geographical elements of its Pteridophyta flora
    WANG Jing-lan, LIU Quan-ru, MENG Shi-yong, ZHAO Ming-fei, KANG Mu-yi
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2010, 29 (9): 1629-1638.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2010090009
    Abstract2641)      PDF (260KB)(2224)      

    The Qinling Mountain Range is considered as an important geo-ecological boundary between the warm temperate and the subtropical zones in eastern China, however, the specific line of the boundary has been controversial among the academic circles. Several studies based on vegetation ecology and flora geography have been done on discussing the division of this boundary, but in all of which Pteridophyta is not included. Pteridophyta is a transitional link between different flora groups in plant evolution, and thus is more sensitive to the environment that fosters it than other plant groups. It is conducive to and necessary for a better understanding of the division of the geo-ecological boundary in Qinling Mountain Range to research into the Range's Pteridophyta flora. In this paper, the composition and geographical elements of the flora of Pteridophyta were studied, and the division of the vertical Pteridophyta spectrum and the further division of the geo-ecological boundary in Qinling Mountain Range were also discussed, by applying the principles of classical florology and using quantitative ecology method as TWINSPAN and DCA into the analyses, based on comparison between the field investigation data and the relevant literatures. The results of our research have shown and revealed: 1) There are 311 species of Pteridophyta, belonging to 85 genera and 36 families in the Qinling Mountain Range; in which the dominant families are Dryopteridaceae, Athyriaceae, and Polypodiaceae, and the dominant genera Dryopteris and Polystichum; meanwhile, the main areal-types of family and genera are tropical elements, while the areal-types of species is dominated by the temperate elements. 2) The altitude of 1000 m a.s.l. at the southern piedmont of the Range should be an important ecological boundary, since the floristic composition of the Pteridophyta below this elevation showed more similar features to the subtropics, while above it the features of the composition and the vertical vegetation spectrum of the Pteridophyta are much closer to the temperate zones. 3) DCA ordination of FER (floristic element ratio) among 15 regions in northern and southern China and the both sides of Qinling Mountain Range strongly supported the hypothesis mentioned above. Based on these results, we tend to deem that the geo-ecological boundary between the subtropical and warm temperate zones lies around the altitude of 1000 m a.s.l. at the southern piedmont of the Range.

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    Cited: CSCD(7)
    Carbon emission and carbon footprint of different land use types based on energy consumption of Jiangsu Province
    ZHAO Rong-qin, HUANG Xian-jin
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2010, 29 (9): 1639-1649.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2010090010
    Abstract2899)      PDF (199KB)(2652)      

    The impact of anthropogenic activities on carbon cycle is fulfilled through land use change. It is helpful to study the impacts of land use change on carbon cycle through linking carbon emissions to different land use types. By using data of energy consumption and land use of Jiangsu province from 2003 to 2007, this paper estimated carbon emission by energy consumption through carbon emission model, and analyzed the carbon emission and carbon footprint of different land use types through linking carbon emission to different land use types. The conclusions can be drawn as follows.(1) Total carbon emission from energy consumption of Jiangsu province increased from 8792.24×104 t (2003) to 16329.85×104 t (2007) with an annual rate of 86%, of which carbon emission from terminal fossil energy use accounted for 53.6%. Because carbon emission from fossil energy use was the main reason for the increase of total carbon emission, developing clean energy and improving energy efficiency are the key methods to decreasing total carbon emission. (2) Per unit area carbon emission of Jiangsu increased from 8.24 t/hm2 (2003) to 15.53 t/hm2 (2007) with an annual rate of 88.5%, of which per unit area carbon emission from residential and industrial areas was the highest (95.62 t/hm2), indicating that dwelling districts and industrial parks were the regions that contributed carbon emission mostly. So, improving energy structure and improving energy efficiency of the above regions was crucial in carbon emission reduction. (3) Carbon footprint of energy consumption was greater than the area of ecological productive land, and the ecological deficit was 1351.28×104 hm2 in Jiangsu in 2007. It is indicated that the carbon absorption of terrestrial ecosystems of Jiangsu Province cannot compensate the carbon emission of energy use. So strengthening environmental protection and enhancing carbon sequestration rate could effectively decrease the carbon emission intensity. (4) The descending order of carbon footprint of different land use types was: residential and industrial area, transportation area, unused land and special use area, agricultural land and water conservancy area. So, adjusting the land use pattern and introducing carbon footprint and carbon emission reduction into land use planning is one of the effective methods to reduce regional carbon footprint. (5) Per unit area carbon footprint of Jiangsu increased from 0.938 hm2/hm2 (2003) to 1.769 hm2/hm2 (2007), which indicates that the carbon footprint of land use had been expanded since 2003.

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    Cited: CSCD(59)