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    Assessment on spatial differences of human settlement environment in communities based on DPSIRM model:The case study of Dalian
    YANG Jun, LI Xue-ming, LI Yong-hua, SUN Cai-zhi, WANG Fang-xiong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2012, 31 (1): 135-143.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2012010013
    Abstract2186)      PDF (817KB)(2685)      
    The urban human settlement environment system is a fragile unstable ecosystem.Compared with the natural one,the urban human settlement environment system has many unique characteristics,such as a high consumption of energy and material,serious environmental pollution and a low reserve of natural resources.It is the preferred strategy for many countries,especially for the developing countries,to give energetic support to improve the level of urbanization,while there are still some other things making people anxious,such as the potential eco-environmental problems caused by rapid urbanization.The rapid urbanization process has resulted in urban human settlement environment even worsening.The spatial differences in urban human settlement environment security are getting increasingly conspicuous.This paper analyzes the pros and cons of some causal chain structure models,such as PSR,DSR and DPSIR,and builds a new urban human settlement environment security assessment model—DPSIRM(Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response-Management) model,a causal network model combined with GIS spatial analysis method,which reflects the health state of the urban human settlement environment system in Dalian City.We can draw following conclusions.The network model is proposed by way of studying the characteristics of chain models in the past,in terms of the complexity of urban human settlement environment system.A assessment indicators system of the "Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response-Management" model was built,which presents that human beings play an essential role in urban human settlement environment security.DPSIRM model reveals the intrinsic relations among all indicators and intrinsic relations between the problem of urban human settlement environment security and the indicators.A fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process(AHP) is applied to indicate weights by a comprehensive and comparative method for results.It is shown that the state of ecological health and spatial differences of urban human settlement environment security with GIS spatial analysis method,as well as the urban management play the essential role in the urban human settlement environment security.
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    Analysis of spatial pattern of rural settlements in northern Jiangsu
    LI Quan-lin, MA Xiao-dong, SHEN Yi
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2012, 31 (1): 144-154.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2012010014
    Abstract2137)      PDF (870KB)(2866)      
    Based on the satellite image of northern Jiangsu in 2008,by using spatial metric models such as spatial interpolation,spatial correlation index,and semivarigram,the paper analyzed the spatial pattern characteristics of rural settlements in the northern Jiangsu region.Some conclusions are drawn as follows.(1) The number of rural settlements distributed in the southern part is larger than that of the northern part in the northern Jiangsu region in terms of spatial distribution,espacially they are distributed most densely in central and southern parts of the region,then exhibits a stepwise decrease.(2) Scale distribution of rural settlements shows a strong spatial autocorrelation,and similar areas are respectively characterized by aggregation distributions in space.The high-value clusters of rural settlement scale are distributed mainly in Xuzhou,Lianyungang,and Suqian.The scale of rural settlement distributed in the north is much larger than that of the south in northern Jiangsu in spatial distribution.(3) The shape distribution of rural settlements shows good continuity and stability,the random of the spatial differential pattern is much lower than the mechanism of the structural differentiation caused by natural correlation in space.Spatial difference of rural settlement distribution is much larger,but it shows some concentration.In terms of different orientations,spatial difference of rural settlement distribution is much larger in the southeast-northwest,rural settlement distribution enveloped from ribbon,long rectangle,and rectangle to sugariness or irregular conglomeration.Above all,the formation and development of rural settlements in northern Jiangsu always has strong correlation with natural conditions such as terrain and river,which is less sensitive to social economy,so the distribution of rural settlements in northern Jiangsu shows obvious spatial dependence.
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    Cited: CSCD(6)
    Establishment of a county-level housing structure database in China
    GAO Xiao-lu, JIN Feng-jun, JI Jue
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (12): 2127-2138.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011120001
    Abstract1823)      PDF (843KB)(1847)      
    County-level housing structure data,especially those in rural areas,are critical for evaluating regional seismic vulnerability and making anti-disaster planning.The data open to the public,however,are incomplete and inconsistent in scale.This paper addressed this issue and estimated the county-level rural housing structure data across the country,including rural and urban housing number and housing ratios in five structures,including wood,brick,mixed,and reinforced concrete.The national 1/100 census data conducted in 2005 were taken as the basic data.Based on an evaluation of the original data,four spatial accuracy levels were specified according to their statistical scales.Separation method was used to identify rural and urban housing data individually from total housing data.Besides,spatial down-scaling models were established to transfer housing data from province-level or prefecture-level to county-level.The influences of geographic factors,including architectural climate zone and architectural thermo zone,and economic and social factors,for example,average relative GDP per capita,minority counties,were considered in the models,and also spatial autocorrelation was considered in prefecture-level models.Linear regression models and MLP models were compared with Rsqure and RMSE when making spatial down-scaling models,and linear regression models were adopted.Finally,models' Rsqures reached 70% and 40% corresponding to prefecture-level and province-level models,which seemed acceptable facing the incomplete and inconsistent data at present.
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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Comprehensive evaluation of the urbanization level in Yangtze River Delta Region:An index framework based on the population,economic structure and land use
    CAO Guang-zhong, BIAN Xue, LIU Tao
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (12): 2139-2149.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011120002
    Abstract1952)      PDF (698KB)(2314)      
    The evaluation of the comprehensive urbanization level is a basic issue in the field of urban studies,which has been highly concerned and disputed for a long time.Studies in China have long been restricted by biased single indicators and too complex multi-indicator systems.This paper,considering the diversity of urbanization modes and suitability of multi-scales,proposes an index framework including three major aspects(population,economic structure and land use) and emphasizes the coordination relationships among them.A case study of the Yangtze River Delta Region has proven the effectiveness of this index framework.Empirical results manifest a typical "Center-Periphery" spatial pattern in this region,which exists under different spatial scales and evolves to be more distinct from 2000 to 2005.Regression analysis reveals that this spatial pattern is a prominent feature of this region and can also be attributed to economic level and foreign direct investment.Due to rapid development,it is difficult for this region to keep the three major aspects synchronous.A further examination finds that the coordination level among population,economic structure and land use tends to decline rather than ascend with the increase of integrated urbanization level.Besides,this desynchrony phenomenon is more significant in the county-scale analysis than in the prefecture-level city analysis,so the appropriate evaluating scale is important.Finally,the authors put emphasis on superiority of comprehensive evaluation in promoting the healthy urbanization,especially in this stage of rapid development for contemporary China.
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    Evolutionary mechanism of port backup area:A case study of Shanghai
    LIANG Shuang-bo, CAO You-hui, WU Wei
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (12): 2150-2162.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011120003
    Abstract2116)      PDF (622KB)(1982)      
    With the process of globalization,the competition among the ports,shipping lines and terminal operators to attain more container traffic has been intense.To obtain more container traffic,some ports have been making a great effort to be a logistic hub to increase their competitive advantage.Under the circumstances,port backup area has attracted much attention in recent years as an important function area.Based on the current development of various types of port backup function area,this paper puts emphasis on the perspective of coupled pattern and process,viewing various types of port backup area as a whole,and discusses the theory of formation and evolution mechanism.The authors hold that global supply chain and evolution of port function,external scale economy and enterprise cooperation promotion,port economy of scale and periphery challenge,regional transportation network layout,resource endowment and needs and policy guidance of urban development are the important driving forces to promote the evolution of port backup area.Meanwhile,the authors believe that evolution of port backup area can be classified into four stages,namely,the period of initial development,the period of unbalanced development,the period of rapid unbalanced expansion and the period of highly differentiated development.According to this model,there are different features in each stage.The empirical analysis shows that,Shanghai port backup area is in the evolution transition period from rapid unbalanced expansion to highly differentiated development.In the next period of time,the evolution will enter the stage of highly differentiated development.
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    Research on city-size distribution and allometric growth in Jiangsu Province based on fractal theory
    SUN Zai-hong, YUAN Yuan, WANG Ya-hua, ZHANG Xiao-lin
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (12): 2163-2172.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011120004
    Abstract2136)      PDF (824KB)(2880)      
    With the acceleration of urbanization,the evolution of the urban systems tends to be more complicated.Working on a major database of regional non-agricultural population,built-up land acreage of cities and counties in Jiangsu over 1996-2008,the study uses methods of rank-size rule,law of allometric growth and its multi-fractal property to analyze the fractal feature of city-size distribution,structural capacity,index scale and degeneration of population-area allometric growth.The results indicate that urban system of Jiangsu Province is now in good gear,its rank-size structure is experiencing a mutation from centralization to decentralization,large and medium-sized cities are the main supporting space for urbanization process.The allometric growth relationship between land and population is in trends of degeneration at provincial level,which turns negative to positive after 2001.Scale factors of allometric growth of Nanjing,Suzhou and Xuzhou have a mark significantly higher than those of other cities,indicating a faster spatial expansion compared with population growth in these cities.In the meantime,relationship between land and population needs further discussion.Complex patterns resulting from evolution of the urban system make higher demands for developing a new-type urbanization with its own characteristics in Jiangsu.
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    Cited: CSCD(13)
    Spatial structure of the leisure zone in urban waterfront: A case study of the Grand Canal in downtown Hangzhou
    ZHANG Huan-zhou, SHEN Xu-wei, GAO Jing
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (10): 1891-1900.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011100015
    Abstract2465)      PDF (902KB)(1563)      
    The spatial structure of urban waterfront generally extends along the axis to both ends, namely being a zone, which also becomes one of the main modes of leisure spatial planning and design in the water area. Based on a review of basic concepts and literatures at home and abroad, this paper expounded and summarized major spatial structure features of leisure zones in urban waterfront, that is mobility, symmetry, amphibiousness, and openness. The leisure products and service within a leisure zone of the Grand Canal in downtown Hangzhou were taken as a case to focus on and analyze the spatial layout and evolution of point, linear, and planar space unit. Furthermore, this study pointed out that the spatial assembling of existing resources showed us a first and a second orientation, the spatial distribution of nodes in the zone was unbalanced and the spatial functions were complementary considering both internal and external dimensions. Finally, some suggestions and proposals, including optimizing spatial order, protecting the Blue Belt and Green Belt, constructing collaborative alliances, highlighting spatial character and carrying on regional context, were put forward to realize a sustainable and harmonious development of the leisure zone in urban waterfront.
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    Spatial distribution and influencing factors of urban land price in Changsha City
    CHANG Jiang, LIAO Qiu-fang, WANG Liang-jian
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (10): 1901-1909.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011100016
    Abstract2107)      PDF (1038KB)(1733)      
    Based on the land transaction data in Changsha from 2003 to the first half of 2009, GIS and econometrics methods were used to compile three spatial structure maps on the distribution of commercial, residential and industrial land prices. Then this paper analyzed the spatial distribution of the three types of land prices and its influencing factors in Changsha. The results are shown as follows. First, the spatial distribution of land price is different in terms of land use types. Commercial land price calls more for the degree of CBD, and the high value areas are concentrated near the center of the city—Wuyi square. Residential land price is consistent with the level of environment quality, and compared with commercial land price, the degree of aggregation for areas with high values comes down to some extent. Industrial land price, which depends more on external traffic factors, is relatively sparsely and evenly distributed in space. Second, the factors affecting the spatial variation of the three types of land are different due to different usages of the land. Degree of CBD is the most important factor among the factors affecting spatial land change in the single central city—Changsha land price, which also has significant influence on the three types of land use.
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    Cited: CSCD(17)
    Characteristics, mechanism, and spatiality of neo-migrants' homeplace-based communities in China: A case study of Hubei Village, Guangzhou
    LI Zhi-gang, LIU Ye, CHEN Hong-sheng
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (10): 1910-1920.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011100017
    Abstract2419)      PDF (1002KB)(1553)      
    Against the backdrop of rapid urbanization, homeplace-based communities accommodating rural migrants from the same origin areas have proliferated in China's metropolitan cities. This phenomenon has attracted a wide range of political concern and media attention. However, little scholarly attention has been devoted to such rural migrant enclaves from the perspective of the social space, and to what extent and in what way 'the power of place' imposes influences upon the migration process and the labor-market process of rural migrants remain poorly understood. Based on field study and qualitative method, this paper aims to probe into the evolution process, basic characteristics, formation mechanism, and spatiality of Hubei Village, a homeplace-based community located in the city of Guangzhou, in the context of rapid urbanization. Our findings reveal that Hubei Village in general has become specialized in economic structure, homogeneous in sub-ethnic composition, and diversified in social stratum since the advent of the reform and opening up, and that abundant production networks and recruitment channels embedded with native space connections engender this community an enclave of key social and cultural distinction from surrounding areas. Our results suggest that Hubei Village plays a key role in accumulating and retaining all kinds of sub-ethnic elements, e.g. capital, labor force, and identity. Specifically, Hubei Village provides a place for the circuit of Hubei migrants' economic capital, for upward mobility of hubei labor migrants, and for integration of Hubei migrants into the host society of detonation cities. Our results further indicate that Hubei Village is a product of interrelated and interwoven forces at varied geographical scales, including market, institutional, and regional-level factors on a macro scale, factors related to urban expansion and infrastructure development on a meso scale, and factors related to competitive edges of Hubei garment factories, entrepreneurial spirit of Hubei migrants, and active response of local community on a micro scale. Based on our empirical study, we make a conclusive remark that homeplace-based communities, as new urban social spaces facilitated by grass-root efforts, make great contributions to the integration of neo-migrants in China's metropolitan cities. Therefore, governments should be cautious to carry out the wholesale demolition of homeplace-based communities, and should reconsider existing redevelopment policies toward urbanized villages.
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    Study on structure of urban network in Shandong Province and on identifying city-roles in the network: Based on the analysis of circulation network of native products/foreign goods in the Republic of China
    WANG Mao-jun, TIAN Li-ying, YANG Xue-chun
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (9): 1621-1636.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011090007
    Abstract1727)      PDF (1148KB)(2238)      
    Through complex network analysis and based on the data of circulation of native products and foreign goods between cities and towns of Shandong Province, the relation matrixes between cities are established in the paper, the whole network structure characteristics of circulation network in the province in 1932 are explored, and roles of cities and key links are identified in the network. Four findings are obtained in this paper. First, the degree of cities followed power-law distribution, which means most cities had low degrees and only a few had high degrees. The connectivity of this network was poor. The correlation between degree and clustering coefficient of city nodes was negative. The dendritic structure was the true portrayal of the development situation of railway network and road network at that time. Second, the whole network had six communities. The scale, independence and regionalism of each community had obvious differences. Third, the hub nodes of the whole network were Jinan, Qingdao, Zhoucun and Jining. The betweenness cities of the whole network were Jinan and Qingdao. The sameness of hub cities and betweenness cities confirms again that the Shandong circulation network of native products and foreign goods was a dendritic network that contained several star-shaped communities. Fourthly, the most important edges were Qingdao-Jinan, Qingdao-Yantai, Jinan-Jining, Jinan-Zhoucun, Qingdao-Weixian in the whole network.
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    Study on the pattern and types of rural development in the Huang-Huai-Hai region
    LI Yu-rui, LIU Yan-sui, LONG Hua-lou
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (9): 1637-1647.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011090008
    Abstract2168)      PDF (1284KB)(1479)      
    China's agricultural and rural development has come into a new period of transformation since 2004, and this may provide new chances for rural development in less developed traditional agricultural areas. As such, geographical comprehensive studies on rural development in these areas are urgently needed. The Huang-Huai-Hai region, a representative of China's traditional agricultural areas, is an important hinterland of Bohai Economic Rim and a major base of China's grain and cotton production. The middle- and low-yield farmland improvement and agricultural comprehensive development initiated in the early 1970s had significantly accelerated the agricultural development in this region. Agricultural production function of this region has been further strengthened. However, rural development was still at a low level. This paper established an indicator system for assessing integrated level and spatial pattern of rural development in this region in 2000 and 2008 at county level. Furthermore, rural development types at county level were classified based on five indices including integrated rural development index, per capita output of major agricultural product, the proportion of agricultural labor in total rural labor, scale industrial output value per capita and the proportion of tertiary industry in GDP using self-organizing feature maps (SOFM) network modeling. The results showed: (1) rural development of the Huang-Huai-Hai region in 2008 has been significantly improved compared with 2000, as evidenced by the integrated rural development index showing an annual increase of 7.71%; (2) however, regional differences of integrated rural development index is still large and its spatial pattern showed no significant change during the study period; (3) per capita grain output and per capita output of major agricultural product have significant negative correlation with integrated rural development index and other selected rural development indictors; (4) according to cluster analysis supported by SOFM network, eight rural development types were divided. In urban-rural transformation, governments at all levels should identify limiting factors based on local conditions of various rural development types.Besides,more attention should be paid to the negative correlation between bulk agricultural commodities production and integrated rural development.
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    Cited: CSCD(46)
    Urbanization rate and its policy implications: Discussion and development of Northam's curve
    CHEN Ming-xing, YE Chao, ZHOU Yi
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (8): 1499-1507.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011080015
    Abstract4749)      PDF (826KB)(1507)      
    Northam's curve of urbanization shaping "S" is one of the most important classical theories in urban geography. For common misreading about Northam's curve, this paper compiled original theory contents. The results indicated that the urbanization level can not reach 100% in all the countries; and the urbanization process between 30% and 70% is not always in a state of acceleration. Urbanization rate curve was put forward, which is shaped by an inverted "U". The evolution of urbanization rate was identified into four stages: embryonic stage, acceleration stage, deceleration stage, approaches zero stage. In different stages the changes have different characteristics. There are five important inspirations for policies: first, the urbanization rate of change has its laws, and cannot pluck up a crop to help it grow; second, China has crossed the turning point, "accelerated urbanization" should not be the main theme of the national long-term development strategy; third, China should maintain the steady development orientation for urbanization; fourth, China's urban concept and focus should be in transition; fifth, urbanization, inclusive growth, coordinating urban-rural development, as well as migrant labors becoming city and town dwellers are the primary targets during "the 12th Five-Year Plan" period.
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    Studentification in urban village: A case study of Xiadu Village, Guangzhou
    HE Shen-jing, QIAN Jun-xi, WU Min-hua
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (8): 1508-1519.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011080016
    Abstract3291)      PDF (974KB)(1819)      
    Studentification is a newly emerged form of gentrification. It refers to a particular type of urban spatial and residential restructuring under the context of higher education expansion, particularly in the UK. Through the production of residential spaces by rent-seekers such as private investors and landlords catering to the specific lifestyle and cultural identity of university students, the residential pattern of students is transformed into a high-degree geographical concentration across several areas in the city. These student residential areas are often in the form of HMO (House in Multiple Occupation), equipped with cultural and retail services, such as theme bars, restaurants, and recreational facilities. The influx of students into local neighborhoods has given rise to residential displacement and a series of social, economic and cultural consequences. This paper starts with a literature review on the concepts, causes, social impacts and mutations of the process of studentification, which are mainly drawn from case studies in the UK and Australia. In the second half of this paper, we present a line of empirical evidence based on our research on Xiadu Village, a studentified urban village close to the main campus of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou. Our findings suggest that the studentifcation process in Xiadu Village shares similarities with western experiences, while demonstrating clear incongruence. These similarities and differences between the west and China are summarized in four aspects: economic, social, economic and physical landscapes. The differences also lie in the prospects of studentification and its connection with other forms of gentrification. China's studentification process seems to prolong after students graduate from university, and this unique experience rarely transforms into or has influence on other forms of gentrification. We also points out that the research on studentification would be instrumental to understand the complex dynamics of China's rapid urban transformation. Meanwhile, in the light of the rapid expansion of higher education in China, the research on studentification will be of practical significance.
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    Review on world city studies and their implications in urban systems
    YANG Yong-chun, LENG Bing-rong, TAN Yi-ming, LI Tian-tian
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (6): 1009-1020.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011060005
    Abstract2434)      PDF (1244KB)(2454)      
    The focus on world cities is always a hot issue in urban studies in global vision. However, the research methods for world cities in the mainstream field are gradually changing over time. To clarify its history, we divide studies on world cities into three periods, that is, stage of world cities with attributes but without relations, stage of world cities in network society, overly new stage of world city network in global environment. With rapid development in information technology and communications and deepened involvement in global integration, advanced producer services (APS) play an increasingly important role in economic and social relations between any two world cities. Meanwhile, new developments in other sources of retrieving data and introducing new approaches from other disciplines into world cities studies reveal that it is a new spring called stage of world city network for academic research in this field. The leading scholar, Peter J. Taylor, and his colleagues develop an interlocking network model when they obtain data from the survey in APS. We claim that new improvements in traditional urban system studies are obviously seen if theoretical and analytical methods in world city network are introduced. In detail, the improvements and implications are: (1) the transformation from attributes to relations, that is relation data instead of attribute data in retrieving basic sources; (2) new stage from hierarchy to network, that is linkages and cooperation instead of orders and hierarchies; (3) the research objectives from closed urban systems to open ones; (4) innovative research methods, that is network approaches instead of comparison of statistical data.
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    Cited: CSCD(33)
    Dynamic simulation and regulation of port-city coupling development: Taking Lianyungang as a case
    YANG Shan, PAN Jing
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (6): 1021-1031.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2011060006
    Abstract1757)      PDF (1034KB)(945)      
    There is a coupling relationship between ports and cities in a regional system according to system dynamics. Based on SD principle and method, this paper establishes a PU-SD port-city coupling model to analyze multiple feedback mechanisms of port-city coupling system and the process of their interaction within the system. The model, which has proved to be reliable and applicable, takes Lianyungang City in Jiangsu Province as an example. Applying historical data fitting, varying economic and social parameters, the model takes 2008 as a base year to produce a scenario simulation for development of the port city in the following 30 years in order to determine appropriate development models for its corresponding phases. The result indicates that port-city coupling relationship and its variation with the parameters modified are complicated and time-varying. This result conforms to the port-city development cycle theory. Therefore, under the guidance of port-city coupling mechanism with its necessary adjustment, Lianyungang City can achieve coordinated development through applying economy-driven, resource-driven and community-driven model according to different phases by exerting different regulating strategies.
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    The residential differentiation of tour-based spatio-temporal decision-making of travel behavior in Beijing City
    CHAI Yan-wei, MA Jing, ZHANG Wen-jia
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2010, 29 (10): 1725-1734.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2010100001
    Abstract2485)      PDF (2065KB)(1887)      

    The relationship between built environment and travel behavior has long been studied in geography, transportation and city planning. There has been a large body of such researches in western countries from macro and micro perspectives, using different methods such as simulation, description and modeling. Relatively, in China most such researches have centered on trip-based analysis, no matter from aggregation level or individual level, paying little attention to tour-based analysis. In addition, the travel decision-making process of residents has rarely been considered either. This paper attempts to construct the concept model of tour-based spatio-temporal decision-making of travel behavior and explore its residential differentiation on workdays in Beijing city, by using nested logit model with the data of travel diary obtained in 2007. Moreover, it attempts to discuss the relationship between activity and mobility.The results first of all show that residential neighborhood has an effect on the tour type decision-making, but the effect varies with the change of travel purpose. For example, if it is a work tour, its residential differentiation will be significant; but if it is a non-work tour, it will be indistinct. This may be closely related with Chinese unique suburbanization. Secondly, the start time decision-making is mainly affected by the activity type, which implies that there is a strong tie between activity and mobility. But, anyhow, the residential differentiation of start time decision-making is not significant. Thirdly, the travel distance and mode choice is distinct in different neighborhoods, that is to say the residential differentiation of spatial decision-making is significant. On the whole, the travel distance of Danwei residents is comparatively short, and the mode choice is mainly non-motor vehicle. In contrast, the travel distance of residents in commercial housing community and policy-oriented housing community is much longer, and the mode choice is mainly motor vehicle, with car in the former and public transport in the latter. Therefore, the travel behavior of Danwei residents is to some extent low carbon while the travel of policy-oriented housing community residents is long and dependent on public transport. We should pay more attention to these unique neighborhoods in China.

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    Cited: CSCD(8)
    The jobs-housing relocation and spatial matching of residents in alleviatory housing neighborhoods in Guangzhou
    ZHOU Su-hong, CHEN Lu-ping, WU Zhi-dong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2010, 29 (10): 1735-1745.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2010100002
    Abstract2593)      PDF (664KB)(2962)      

    Alleviatory housing is one kind of houses provided by the government for low-income families. It has become one of the important parts in the social security system of China. By doing a case study in the alleviatory housing neighborhoods named Tangxia and Tongde developed during the 1990s in Guangzhou, the jobs-housing relocation and spatial mismatch are tested. The types of residents in both of the neighborhoods have changed a lot from 1996 to 2007. A large number of sub-rent and re-sold houses came up due to the changing of location, relatively low price and inefficient management about immigration and emigration of this indemnificatory housing community. Accordingly, the main structure of housing consists of alleviatory housing, commercial housing, re-rent (sub-rent) housing and Danwei housing. The residents in alleviatory housing and commercial housing meet with great changes of jobs-housing relocation and jobs-housing mismatch with different mechanism factors. As to alleviatory housing residents, the jobs-housing distance became longer after they moved into the houses allocated by the government. The passive jobs-housing mismatch is mainly driven by policies and the barriers from the residents themselves. In the latter case, commercial housing residents who have an average income or above are attracted by the low price of houses due to the political welfare, and they can afford to take taxi or private cars to meet with the long distance commuting. The jobs-housing mismatch is mainly driven by market and the initiate choice of the residents. Different from the residents in both alleviatory housing and commercial housing, residents in re-rent (sub-rent) housing and Danwei housing do not meet with jobs-housing mismatch problems. The former is the residents who work near the neighborhoods and are mostly attracted by the low price of houses, and the latter is the Danwei employees who get houses from their Danweis. Both residents in re-rent (sub-rent) housing and the Danweis on behalf of their employees would take account into the short distance when they select the jobs-housing places. The sub-renting and re-selling of alleviatory housing have carried some inequity and the spatial mismatch for residents in both alleviatory housing and commercial housing has generated some adverse impact on their quality of lives. It is necessary to conduct more researches on the optimization of the alleviatory housing policies and the implementations, as well as the optimization of urban structure.

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    Cited: CSCD(27)
    Administrative boundary re-organization in Nanjing metropolitan region
    LUO Xiao-long, YIN Jie, TIAN Dong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2010, 29 (10): 1746-1756.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2010100003
    Abstract3572)      PDF (750KB)(2535)      

    In today's globalizing age, cities and regions have experienced intensive restructuring in the world, giving rise to deterritorialization and reterritorialization. From the perspective of reterritorialization, this study investigates administrative boundary re-organization in Nanjing metropolitan region, using the case of Jiangning's abolishing county and designating district.According to the theory of territorial restructuring, this study focuses on two territorial organizations-city and state, investigating the process of administrative boundary re-organization, impacts of reterritorialization on urban development and power struggle in administrative boundary adjustment in Nanjing and Jiangning. We argue that territory restructuring is a gradual process in Nanjing metropolitan region, involving abolishing county and designating district and annexation of towns and townships into street offices. Through these administrative boundary adjustments, Jiangning is transforming from a county economy to a city economy. Its economy grows dramatically and the built-up area is extending rapidly after the administrative boundary adjustment. This is due to the independent economic and political status of Jiangning after reterritorialization to a large degree. However, with the restructuring of city space, there is little change in another territorial organization-state. Jiangning district still possesses the former county's administrative system and power. In the new city space, the new administrative system (two-layer governments-city and district) and the old administrative system (three-layer governments-city-county-town/township) co-exist. Therefore, Jiangning's reterritorialization is an incomplete process of reterritorialization due to the lack of state restructuring. Such incomplete reterritorialization causes intensive interest conflicts between city government and district government, especially in urban planning, public transportation and land use, etc. The findings of this study will shed light on other metropolitan administrative boundary re-organizations, and have important policy implementations for improving metropolitan governance.

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    Quantitative evaluation on effect of farmers' interaction in rural community:Evidence from Mengzhai Village, Henan Province
    LUO Qing, LI Xiao-jian
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2010, 29 (10): 1757-1766.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2010100004
    Abstract2600)      PDF (376KB)(1861)      

    Agriculture information flows will produce interactive learning effect, and the existence of interactive learning effect plays very important roles in the spread of agricultural technology. Based on the surveys in Mengzhai Village, Henan Province, we collect the data concerning the social and economic conditions on garlic production of neighbors, relatives and nearby-plot farmers, examine interactive learning effect, and analyze the interaction consequences in different types of groups. Results show that: (1) endogenous interaction effects exist only in the kinship group; (2) contextual interaction effect exists in nearby-plot groups and neighborhood group, but interactive learning effects have remarkable differences between the groups; (3) correlated effect exists in all the groups. Compared with the kinship group, the other groups have more correlated effect. Correlated effect is much weaker than endogenous interaction effect in the kinship group, and it is also smaller than contextual interaction effect in nearby-plot group and neighborhood group; (4) direction can be identified in farmers' interactive learning. This suggests that a few farmers learn new methods by communicating with external actors or accumulating the new knowledge by planting the garlic, and their interaction with other farmers might result in knowledge externalities. The size of externalities depends on the degree of intimacy between farmers. The above conclusions have some important policy implications for the diffusion of new technology in Mengzhai Village. For example, in the extension of new technology, we can select a few farmers with stronger absorptive ability in different kinship groups, encourage them to adopt new technology, and thus affect other farmers to accept new technology by the interactive effect. These results revise the findings of foreign scholars. This academic research has important meanings for policy-making.

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    The impact of rural households' concurrent businessbehaviors response on the housing land-use patternin poor mountain area:Based on a survey of 568 households in Yunyang County,Chongqing
    ZHOU Jing, YANG Qing-yuan, XIN Gui-xin, FENG Ying-bin, DAI Pei-qi
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2010, 29 (10): 1767-1779.   DOI: 10.11821/yj2010100005
    Abstract2707)      PDF (852KB)(2903)      

    The rural households have been increasingly taking part in diverse production activities apart from farming in poor mountain areas, which has a great impact on their land-use activities. Taking Yunyang County of Chongqing as a case study, we employed a Participatory Rural Appraisal method to investigate randomly selected 568 households and analyzed the spatial distribution of their rural housing land by using a landscape pattern analysis. The results show that the concurrent business level of rural households was high in Yunyang County. First, according to the ratio of off-farm income to the total income and the proportion of off-farm workforce inputs, we classified rural households into five groups: full-farm, farm-dominated, half-farm, non-farm-dominated and non-farm households. We find that the lower proportion of the elderly or women the households have and the higher education they get, the higher concurrent business level they will be. However, households with multiple divisions of work and a big family size tend to be at the middle stage of concurrent business. Of full-farm and farm-dominated households, the housing land area per family is relatively high, about 180 m2, which indicates extensive landuse utilization. Compared with the farm-dominated households, full-farm households themselves used a large proportion of land for rearing livestock and storing groceries except for housing. The residential land of half-farm households increases by approximately 190 m2 per family, indicating a relatively intensive and less diverse residential land use. For half-farm households, they reduce the land of storing and increase the land of living to enlarge their housing land. As for non-farm-dominated and non-farm households who almost drop all their farming activities, the residential land area per family tends to be lessened, about 160 to 130 m2, which means a more intensive but a less diverse land use pattern. The causes are that the land used for agricultural production decreases, and the decreased land of producing is less than the expanded land of living. As a consequence, the study suggests that the adjustment or arrangement of housing land should be fit to the concurrent business needs of households.

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