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    Human mobility and evolution based on social network:An empirical analysis of Yangtze River Delta
    WANG Jue, CHEN Wen, YUAN Feng
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2014, 33 (2): 385-400.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201402016
    Abstract1829)      PDF (1978KB)(109933)      
    The fast flow of various productive assets and power among different places has promoted the formation of city networks in the context of globalization, regionalization and localization. The city network has nowadays become a new mode of regional organization and spatial structure, and imposes a significant influence on the process of regional integration. By applying the social network analysis, this article attempts to investigate the characteristics, emergence and evolution of human mobility networks in the Yangtze River Delta region. The density, centralization and connectedness of the networks are calculated, and the results show that the human mobility networks in this region have formed and are characteristics of spatial unbalance in population distribution. Secondly, cities including Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Ningbo and Suzhou-Wuxi-Changzhou areas have constituted important nodes of population agglomeration. Meanwhile, these cities are experiencing the process of emigration of population to other adjacent areas. Thirdly, two modes of human mobility networks, inter-province network and intra-province network, coexist in the Yangtze River Delta region. Specifically speaking, the inter-province network is characteristic of hierarchical diffusion, and the migration of population mainly occurs among Wuxi, Suzhou and Hangzhou. However, the intra-province network becomes more complex and can be further categorized two models—Jiangsu's intra-province network and Zhejiang's intra-province network. From the perspective of the spatial pattern, Jiangsu's intra-province network is characteristic of adjacent infiltration which means the relocation of population from population cores to peripheral areas. However, Zhejiang's intra-province network exhibits a hub-and-spoke structure and primarily includes three nodes of population mobility— Hangzhou, Ningbo and Taizhou. Based on the discussion mentioned above, the mechanism of human mobility network is analyzed with the consideration of the effect of employment opportunity, income, industrial structure and mobility cost on the population mobility. The analysis manifests that factors involving the openness of cities, the ratio of secondary industry and tertiary industry, housing price, spatial distance and institutional thickness have significantly affected the formation of human mobility network in the Yangtze River Delta. Finally, this article proposes a theoretical hypothesis of the evolution of human mobility network which includes the following four stages—discrete distribution stage, single-core agglomeration stage, multi-center network stage, and chained spatial network stage.
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    Cited: CSCD(23)
    A study on North-South differences in economic growth
    WU Dian ting
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2001, 20 (2): 238-246.   doi: 10.11821/yj2001020015
    Abstract2000)      PDF (2089KB)(103714)      

    Basing on statistical data, the author reviewed the differences between the north and the south in economic rate and level and analysed regional unbalanced development in China Through quantitative calculation, the conclusions are drawn: 1)it was obvious that the south was faster than the north; contrast of economic level has reversed since reform and opening 2)The reasons accountable for these changes consist of politics, export strength,economic system (structure of possession system),input intensity (special foreign direct investment), industrial structure and so on 3)Social cultural elements have certain influence by all means 4)To turn the north tardy, we should quicken the pace of reform and opening in the north, make efforts in restructuring big and middle state owned enterprises, vigorously carry out the strategy of making the country strong through science and education 5)The north must grasp opportunity, build new economic growth pole, retransfer and upgrade industrial structure as soon as possible

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    Cited: CSCD(32)
    A multi-level spatial structure analysis algorithm for urban agglomeration study in China
    Fangqu NIU, Weidong LIU, Tao SONG, Zhiding HU
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2015, 34 (8): 1447-1460.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201508004
    Abstract1549)   HTML27)    PDF (14610KB)(100217)      

    Urban agglomeration plays a key role for China in attending the global divisions of labor, international competitions, as well as the integration of regional economy. Various scholars have dedicated to the study of urban agglomeration. However there is no consensus on the definition of urban agglomeration, which leads to the controversy. Relations between each city-pair in an urban agglomeration may form a complex network which brings a great challenge for researchers to use traditional method to synthetically analyze the spatial structure, due to the exponential calculation time increased by a great number of nodes. Based on the summary of different definitions, a novel method is developed to analyze the multi-level spatial structure of an urban agglomeration. We first find the core cities by calculating the urban centrality of each city in an urban agglomeration using several selected indices. To be specific, the spatial scope of the urban agglomeration can be defined as the 2-hour commute range of each core city. Then interaction intensities between each pair of cities are calculated based on the traffic accessibility and cities' scale. We develop an algorithm to analyze the spatial structure based on the so-called Multi-level Spatial Structure Tree (MSS-Tree), which can be used to analyze the urban agglomeration structure in detail. Finally, we carry out the sample study of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration to testify the model. The experimental results show that due to the centrality of Beijing downtown area, cities or towns around Beijing have much more interactions with Beijing than among themselves. It could be concluded that mature sub-center cities or towns around Beijing are needed to take the responsibility of service provision. In comparison, Tianjin downtown area and Tianjin coastal district have double cores in Tianjin. Hengshui city far away from Beijing downtown area has the potential to become a secondary central city in the near future. The case study also demonstrates that the algorithm based on the MSS-Tree data is an effective method for the spatial analysis of an urban agglomeration, and can play an important role in subsequent decision makings of urban agglomeration development.

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    The evolutionary paths of new emerging industry in cities: A case study of the Internet of things industry in the Yangtze River Delta region
    Mingfeng WANG, Houxue XI
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2015, 34 (9): 1697-1707.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509008
    Abstract987)   HTML9)    PDF (1999KB)(87049)      

    The geography of innovation and the regional development have attracted considerable scholarly attention, especially the spatial evolution processes of new technologies, enterprises, and industries. The development of a particular industry varies across locations, and more work is needed to study an emerging industry from a geographical perspective. The evolutionary economic geography provides effective theoretical tools for the analysis of the spatial evolution of industries and contributes to a better cognition of the mechanism for the evolution of economic landscapes. A significant agglomeration has been found in the Internet of things (IoT) industry in the following locations: Yangtze River Delta region, Pearl River Delta region, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Bohai Rim) region, and some developed cities in the central and western regions of China. As the origin of the IoT industry, the Yangtze River Delta region has a full-fledged industry chain. Based on the path dependence theory, this paper explores the local differences of the emergence and evolution of the IoT industry in four cities of the Yangtze River Delta region: Wuxi, Shanghai, Nanjing, and Hangzhou. In Wuxi, occasional opportunity and local government are the significant determinants, while the development of IoT industry in Shanghai is driven by the industrial base and innovative institutional environment. For Nanjing and Hangzhou, the interactions between the fundamental conditions of industry and the state policies are the major impetuses. In conclusion, technological base, government policy, and occasional opportunity are the main drivers in the initial stage of emerging industry in China.

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    Oasis land use change and its hydrological response to Tarim River Basin
    MANSUR Sabit, NURKAMIL Yusuf
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2010, 29 (12): 2251-2260.   doi: 10.11821/yj2010120014
    Abstract2190)      PDF (468KB)(83284)      

    In recent years, the study on hydrological effect of land use change has become a focus. In the Tarim River Basin, land use change has exerted great effect on hydrological process of a river, so it is necessary to study the hydrological effect of land use change in the river basin. As cultivated land dominates the land use type in the Tarim River Basin, based on the statistical data of cultivated land of each prefecture and tested data of each main water station in Tarim River Basin, this paper analyzes the total variation trend, variation speed, regional difference and hydrological effect on water quantity of the river. The results are shown as follows. (1) The cultivated land area in the Tarim River Basin shows a fluctuating increasing trend with an annual rate of 2.37%, but per capita cultivated land area saw a gradual decrease with an annual rate of 0.44%. There is a significant spatial disparity in the cultivated land changes. The change of cultivated land area in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture where the reserved land and water resources are plentiful is large, and that in Hotan Prefecture located at the northern foot of Kunlun Mountains is small. (2) As a result of the expansion of cultivated land area in the Tarim River Basin, the hydrological effect such as river process, river discharge, flood, water quality and silt are more remarkable than before, and the spatial effect on river discharge is striking. As a result of cultivated land expansion, cultivated land and consuming water rise by 34.80% and 21.78% from 1957 to 2006, respectively. At the same time, water pollution and the decreasing of the water quality have become the confinement of social development in the Tarim River Basin. At present, the project of water saving has taken effect, and the trend of the venting water quantity from streams to the Tarim River has been under control. In order to keep the sustainable development in this region, it is urgent to harness the Tarim River in a long term, set up coherent management system of water resources, and use water resources reasonably.

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    Temporal-spatial evolution patterns of regional tourism economic development in Anhui province
    Wenhai HU, Jianping SUN, Feifei YU
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2015, 34 (9): 1795-1806.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509016
    Abstract655)   HTML12)    PDF (3025KB)(82528)      

    This paper first analyzes the development modes of regional tourism in Anhui province. Based on the basic data such as total tourism revenue, inbound tourism and domestic tourism revenue between 2001 and 2013 in each city, we analyze economic disparities of regional tourism from the perspectives of temporal variation and spatial evolution. The result shows that, firstly, the development of tourism industry in the region evolves from the dotted mode to the radial mode and then to the dual-core joint development mode. Secondly, economic development of Anhui tourism shows a big disparity among different cities. And the spatial disparity of international tourism is bigger than that of domestic tourism. Thus, the basic pattern that tourism economy of cities in southern Anhui gets ahead of that of cities in northern part has remained fundamentally unchanged. Thirdly, economic development of tourism in different cities of Anhui, inbound tourism in particular, is obviously characterized by the primacy distribution. And the urban primacy index of both the total revenue and domestic tourism has gone through a process of fall in the beginning and rise in the later stage. The urban primacy index of inbound tourism basically follows a downward trend, with the two cities of Huangshan and Hefei competing for the primary city. Fourthly, when elements of the tourism industry are viewed from the temporal perspective, tourist attractions, travel agencies and star hotels have grown rapidly. Viewed from the spatial perspective, tourist attractions are mainly located in Huangshan, Anqing and Lu'an, and travel agencies and star hotels mainly lie in Hefei and Huangshan. Finally, the main factors affecting the evolution of regional tourism economy in Anhui can be attributed to natural endowments of tourism resources, tourism policy, transportation networks, market demand of tourism, strategic adjustment of tourism industry development and level of regional economic development.

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    The spatial pattern of Shanghai urban industry based on point data
    Yuhong CAO, Yanqing SONG, Shengqing ZHU, Xianfu CHENG
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2015, 34 (9): 1708-1720.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201509000
    Abstract910)   HTML18)    PDF (4761KB)(78712)      

    The urban industry is embedded in the city area which has its unique location characteristics and spatial pattern. Based on the micro-data of Shanghai urban industry enterprises in 2008, with the methods of location quotient, hot spot analysis and proximity index analysis, the paper explores the spatial distribution and the agglomeration characteristics of urban industries, as well as the spatial proximity relations among various industries during the process of industrial suburbanization. Results show that: First of all, the location choice of urban industry enterprises in Shanghai has a dual directivity to both central city and suburban areas, the range of 10~20 kilometers from city center is the densest area of urban industries, and the overall spatial distribution of urban industries has obvious heterogeneous characteristics. Food processing, packaging and printing, manufacture of tourism crafts and manufacture of small-scale electronic information constitute comparative advantage industries of central city, manufacture of interior adornment composes the comparative advantage industry of suburbs, and clothing accessories industry and manufacture of makeup and washing supplies constitute comparative advantage industries of suburban regions. Secondly, all kinds of industrial parks including commercial buildings, urban industrial zones and industrial estates in the city have become the major carrier of spatial agglomeration, which present "crater" gathering morphology. There are also some differences among the inter-industry according to the pattern of spatial agglomeration. Thirdly, when it comes to the spatial proximity relations, aside from being affected by some factors including the local government development policies, economic history basis and traffic location, the layout between all urban industries shows the following characteristics: the proximity layout is based on the same factor inputs, productive correlation, common market and policy orientation while the weak proximity layout is based on the heterogeneous exclusivity and environmental requirements.

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    PGIS-based probabilistic community flood disaster risk assessment:A case of Taining County Town, Fujian Province
    LI Weijiang, WEN Jiahong, WU Yanjuan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2014, 33 (1): 31-42.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201401004
    Abstract1306)      PDF (7157KB)(74466)      
    We carried out a case study of community-scale flood disaster risk assessment in Taining, Fujian, China, using a PGIS method and probabilistic (scenario) risk analysis model. The relationship between flood hazard intensity and exceedance probability in the study area was calculated using historical data of 13 flood events that occurred between 1949-2011. Our analysis shows that the annual probability of exceedance (AEP) of flood is 1.6% with a peak discharge of 2929.18 m3/s and a peak water level of 281.50 m on the scenario of 1.6% AEP, the inundation area is up to 1.3 km2, covering approximately 31.0% of the total area of the county town, the deepest inundation depth is over 3.5 m, and the maximum inundation time is over 10 hours. There are 1846 (42.2% of the total) buildings affected by the floods. Three disaster loss formulae were established based on loss information derived from the damaged buildings, household properties and retail store properties, respectively, and then loss estimation were conducted, and loss distribution was mapped. The results show that, the impacts of flood disaster on the community are significant, and it is necessary to make emergency planning and establish an early warning system for flood disaster prevention and reduction.
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    Impact of climate warming on the northern boundary of sub-tropical zone of China
    MIAO Qi-long, DING Yuan-yuan, WANG Yong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2009, 28 (3): 634-642.   doi: 10.11821/yj2009030008
    Abstract2318)      PDF (1090KB)(61504)      

    Changes of the climatic zones are related to climate warming and its impacts. The northern boundary of sub-tropical zone is between the temperate and sub-tropical zones, which is a very important boundary in China's climatic divisions. In this paper a case study is made on the impact of climate warming on the northern boundary of sub-tropical zones of China. The data covering about 55 years (1951~2005) of daily mean temperature with 740 stations are obtained from China Meteorological Administration. According to the definition of the first class climatic zone from Climatological Atlas of the People's Republic of China, the authors use the number of days with secular pentad mean temperature passing through ≥10℃ as the main index, and January mean air temperature as the auxiliary indices. Namely the definition of the northern boundary of sub-tropical zone is the divide where the number of days with secular pentad mean temperature passing through ≥10℃ reaches 218, the accumulated temperature with ≥10℃ is 4500~4800℃, and January mean air temperature is 0℃. The authors count respectively the inter-decadal changes of indices of the first class climatic zone in north sub-tropical and temperate zones in 1951~2005, and the changes of the north sub-tropical belt in the periods 1951~1970, 1971~1990 and 1991~2005. The results show that: the number of days of secular pentad mean temperature passing through ≥10℃, the accumulated temperature ≥10℃ and January mean air temperature all have an upward trend in the 55 years in the vicinity of 34 degrees north latitude. Since the 1950s, there has been little change in the western section of the northern boundary of sub-tropical zone; the central and eastern sections of the northern boundary of sub-tropical zone moved to the north over a large range. By the beginning of the 21st century the central and eastern sections has moved to near 35°N, i.e., 2~3 degrees of latitude northward, compared with the period 1951~1970. The northern boundary of sub-tropical zone moving towards the north, which is a response to climate warming, will have a very important influence on the agricultural pattern and the ecological environment.

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    Cited: CSCD(30)
    Pattern evolution and its contributory factor of cold spots and hot spots of economic development in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region
    Hao LIU, Lin MA, Guoping LI
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2017, 36 (1): 97-108.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201701008
    Abstract1124)   HTML24)         

    The rapid and imbalanced economic development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region has widened the gap between Beijing-Tianjin and surrounding areas since the 1990s, therefore, it is an important social consensus to achieve coordinated development. In this paper, we analyzed the imbalanced economic development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region by proposing a GDP Index using the DMSP/OLS nighttime light data to represent the regional economic development. Then the Getis-Ord General G, Global Moran's I and Optimized Hot Spot Analysis were applied to qualify the spatial pattern of the GDP Index. Third, Space Time Pattern Mining, Spatial Lag Model (SLM) and Spatial Error Model (SEM) were employed to identify the dynamics of the spatial pattern and evaluate the effects of four factors, which were natural environment (elevation and gradient), infrastructure (road network), policy (land use cover) and administrative division (urban or rural area), to the imbalance in the economy, respectively. Results show that: (1) the study area can be divided into three groups based on the level of economic development: urban Beijing-Tianjin, rural Beijing-Tianjin and urban Hebei, and rural Hebei. And there are two economic development gaps caused by Siphon Effect between urban and rural Beijing-Tianjin, and Beijing-Tianjin and Hebei, which is different from the previous view that only one economic development gap between Beijing-Tianjin and Hebei. (2) The dynamics of spatial pattern of economic development are mainly constant hot spot, fluctuant hot spot and fluctuant cold spot. The degree of hot spot, which is mostly in Beijing-Tianjin, decreases from urban center to rural area as concentric circles. In contrast, the majority of cold spots, which have no obvious ring structure, are located in rural Hebei. (3) The economic development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region has non-linear relationship with natural environment, infrastructure, policy and administrative division. In the hot spot region where the economy is more developed, all four factors, especially infrastructure, policy and administrative division, are positively correlated with economic development. However, high gradient, insufficient infrastructure and improper policy limit the economic development in the place with less developed economy, i.e. the cold spot region. This research may be helpful to understand the process and current conditions of economic development in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, and useful to realize coordinated development in this region.

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    Tupu analysis on the land cover evolving patterns in the new-born wetland of the Yellow River Delta
    YE Qing-hua, TIAN Guo-liang, LIU Gao-huan, YE Jing-min, LOU Weiguo
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2004, 23 (2): 257-264.   doi: 10.11821/yj2004020014
    Abstract1937)      PDF (456KB)(51331)      

    The new-born wetland in the Yellow River Delta (YRD) is located in the active river mouth in the east of the YRD, which is one of the separate parts of the Nature Reserve in YRD. From 1976 to 2000, as Yellow River water with high sediment content flowed over the flood plains, a progressing coastline and conspicuously changing land cover in this new-born wetland have occurred. Spatial and temporal landscape patterns resulting from interactions between natural conditions (e.g. vegetation, soil properties, and hydrology) and anthropogenic land use activities (e.g. agriculture, road construction and oil exploration) changed greatly during the last 20 years. Landscape is classified into 9 zones according to its different land covers in this region, i.e., sea in the study Bohai area, tidal flat, Seablite-Chinese tamarisk, Chinese aeluropus-Lalang grass, Common weed, Hankon willow and artificial forest, water bodies, agriculture area, and residence, road and oil field zone. They respectively stand for saline habitat, swamp habitat, neutral habitat and artificial habitat for different ecosystems. The archive of satellite data allows us to quantify land cover changes in the region over the past 20 years. Based on supervised classification by ERDAS with field survey and statistical data, fourtemporal land cover classifications were achieved by LandsatTM432,CBERS-1 CCD432 imager and vector data from atlas of the Yellow River Delta covering 1984, 1991, 1996 and 2000. Two ecological evolving series are concluded in those maps and intertwined with each other in the region, i.e., the wetland ecological evolvement and the saline ecological evolvement. Three evolving patterns of the zonal centroid of these 9 types of landscapes are summarized according to their different spatial distributions and temporal evolvement directions. One is the Land-evolving pattern, which is followed by tidal flats, common weed, water bodies, forested land, and Seablite. Another one is the Sea-backward pattern, which is followed by sea in the study area and Chinese aeluropus-Lalang grass. The third pattern is Human-resulting pattern, i.e., cultivated land and residence and industrial zone, which is mostly controlled by human beings in suitable living environment for productivities.

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    Cited: CSCD(26)
    Development and spatial effect of resource-based industries in Urumqi
    DONG Wen, DENG Feng, YANG Yu
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (4): 723-734.   doi: 10.11821/yj2011040014
    Abstract1195)      PDF (1065KB)(43818)      
    Industries that consume fossil fuels tend to drive industrial development and have a significant impact on the spatial characteristics of the cities. Especially, industries that consume fossil fuels have obvious impetus of the development of the city which is at its peak period. So a study of relationships between industries that consume fossil fuels and urban development is conducted in this paper. Urumqi's productivity growth in the secondary sector and its high GDP per capita reflects the predominance of the energy sector as a key driver of the industrial output in Xinjiang. Different mathematic methods were applied for data analyses, namely method of industrial structure evolution, shift-share method and location entropy. This paper investigates the spatial effects of industrial development, using fossil fuel consumptive industries as a single factor, and used a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to conduct in-depth analysis of industrial development of its resource-based characteristics. The results showed that: resource-based industrial development in Urumqi contributed to the expansion and spatial evolution of the city. The scale, speed, and spatial layout of industrial development coincided with the general urban expansion of Urumqi. Resource-based industrial development emerged in patch throughout the city while general urban expansion did axially, along major roads, and concentrically in the city center. The resource-based industrial patches grew outward from the city center and formed both finger and jagged shaped areas. While resource-based industrial development in Urumqi became more diffuse, similar development in neighboring cities remained concentrated. Resource-based industrial development in Urumqi has resulted in both the spatial evolution and expansion of the urbanized area. For the cities and counties faraway, the agglomeration function was more effective, thus cities and towns had a weak radiation.
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    Cited: CSCD(6)
    THE TEMPORAL AND, SPATIALFEA TURES OF SUMMER SEA-LEVEL PRESSURE ON THE NORTHERN PACIFIC AND ITS RELATION WITH DROUGHT/FLOOD OVER THE HUANGHE AND GHANGJIANG VALLEYS
    Li Yuehong, Wu Xiangding
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    1991, 10 (3): 30-36.   doi: 10.11821/yj1991030004
    Abstract758)      PDF (516KB)(41208)      
    The Complex Emperical Orthogonal Function (CEOF) technipue was applied to the data, which are 96-point summer sea-level pressures on the Northern Pacific from 1899 through 1980 A.D.The dominant feature of the first principle Component in this area might be the existence and displacement of quasi-permanent atmospheric active centre, the Tropical Pacific High, The moving direction of spatial wave in low latitude was different from that in high latitude. The second aad third components could correspond to the flood and drought patterns in China, respectively.The relationship between the sea-level pressure field and drought/flood over the Huanghe and changjiang valleys has been also discussed it this paper. Based on multi-spectral analysis, the coupling oscillation with two-three years appeared between the pressure field and drought/flood variation. Meanwhile, it was pointed out that the oscillation seemed to represent a major feature by synchronous teleconnection. In addition, there were other relativities between them.
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    The Analysis of Commuting Behavior in the Huge Residential Districts: A Case Study of Wangjing and Tiantongyuan in Beijing
    MENG Bin, Yu Hu-li, Zheng Li-min
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2012, 31 (11): 2069-2079.   doi: 10.11821/yj2012110014
    Abstract1278)      PDF (825KB)(40603)      
    The relationship between the jobs and residents changed rapidly with the development of the suburbanization.The balance between jobs-housing locations in China was disintegrated and reconstructed during the periods of reform and rapid economic development. Beijing, the capital of China, was also faced with the urbanization and suburbanization during the past 30 years.This study chose Wangjing and Tiantongyuan, which are two huge residential districts located in suburbs of Beijing, as the cases, and tried to find out the commuting behavior in Beijing based on the data from two questionnaires answered apart in 2005 and 2010.The Geographic Information System (GIS) and spatial analysis were used to compare the commuting behavior.The questionnaires include the information about the residents, employment and commuting.The results of the questionnaires show that the residents at Wangjing and Tiantongyuan spent more than 40 minutes on the signal way to work places.So the long time commuting is the common characteristic of the residents in suburban districts.But for different functions for the residential districts, Wangjing is a more mixed district than Tiantongyuan.And the departure time in the morning, the choice of the traffic ways and the commuting flow are different between Wangjing and Tiantongyuan.The main factors that cause these differences include the location of the residential districts, the traffic system and the functional planning of the districts. Mixed land use in suburban areas, and the well planned road system will be helpful to reduce the separation distance between jobs and housing developed with the suburbanization
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    Sedimentary environments and facies about Chen Co lacustrine delta, South Tibetan Plateau
    FENG Jin-liang, ZHU Li-ping, LI Yu-xiang
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2004, 23 (5): 649-656.   doi: 10.11821/yj2004050009
    Abstract1533)      PDF (364KB)(38800)      

    Chen Co lake is located at northern slope of the Himalayas. The geographical location of Chen Co lake is 28°53′~28°59′N,90°28′~90°35′E . The maximums of length and width are 11km and 7.8km respectively. The area of lake is about 37km 2. The maximum of depth is 31m. In lacustrine delta of Chen Co lake, 2 boreholes were drilled. In addition, using piston sampling method, 2.16m sedimentary core was gathered at 8m of the lake water depth. In laboratory, the time scale was established by 14C and ESR dating. On the basis of core description, grain size distribution, and CaCO 3 content analysis, the sedimentary environments and facies of lacustrine delta were explained. The 36.70m longer drilling core on the lacustrine delta plain recorded the sedimentary history since about 55000 aBP. The mean sedimentary rate of the whole borehole is about 0.667mm/a. Since 16920 aBP, the sedimentary rate rose and reached up to 1.27mm/a or so. The sediments of Chen Co delta indicate a complex of depositional processes. The main body of sediment consists of debris deposition of land-origin. The sedimentary strata sequence and sub-environment of deposition were recognized according to the colour, lithology, grain size, sedimentary structure, etc. Due to the multi-provenance of sediment material, the CaCO 3 content of lacustrine sediment showed ruleless change on profile. But, the grain size and sedimentary sequence indicated that the total sediment consisted of alluvial fan, subaquatic alluvial fan (fan delta) and delta sediment from bottom to upper. The sedimentary environment of delta also changed among delta front, delta plain and prodelta. Up to now, it presented the nature of delta plain environment. During 17500aBP~14000aBP, Chen Co lake witnessed the greatest lake period. In addition, the sedimentary sequence recorded the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Younger Dryas cold event. The sedimentary characteristics and sedimentary environment were controlled by lake-level fluctuations.The authors suggested the driving factor of lake-level fluctuation is climate, especially the change of summer monsoon.

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    Cited: CSCD(3)
    The new model of the spatial structure of rural settlements—RROD
    Yanhua HE, Chengli TANG, Guohua ZHOU, Shanshan ZENG, li LI, ting ZHONG
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2014, 33 (9): 1716-1727.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201409012
    Abstract1531)   HTML18)    PDF (7210KB)(36200)      

    Inspired by the TOD important role in the theory and practice of urban spatial structure optimization process, learning from rural settlements unit size and spatial structure research, this article try to build a new spatial structure of rural settlement patterns—Rural Road-Oriented Development, and systematically analyze on the concept of meaning, construction principles, frameworks, type, spatial scales, etc. Simultaneously, this article demonstrate the reasonable size and structure RROD unit focus from the facility threshold, farming radius, neighborhood association and the travel distance perception. This article considers the general radius of the unit range from 450m to 700m, population size range from 1500m to 3500m people, covering general range from 30 hm2 to 75 hm2, distance general range from 3.5km to 5.0km. However, due to the geographical ranges based on homogeneous and general development conditions assumptions, this conclusion has a general theoretical guidance. So, in practice, the ranges should be properly adjusted and modified according to the actual situation.

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    Cited: CSCD(18)
    STUDY ON THE BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF NATURAL VEGETATION, VEGETATION REGIONALIZATIONAND PROTECTION OF SHANGHAI
    Gao Jun
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    1997, 16 (3): 82-88.   doi: 10.11821/yj1997030011
    Abstract4219)      PDF (557KB)(35080)      
    Shanghai, the largest city of China, is situated at the south bank of Yangtze Esture (30°42'-31°48'N, 120°52'-122°16'E).It covers an area of 6341 square kilometers.The annual average temperature and rainfall are 15.8℃ and 11 45.1mm respectively.There are 919 species of seed plants belonging to 134 families and 510 genera in Shanghai.According to the geographical distribution of spermatophytic genera, tyey may be divided into 15 types of geographical elements, which are mostly Pantropic (27.8%).Northe Temperate (21.6%) and East Asia (11.9%).The nature vegetation of Shanghai consists mainly of evergreen broadleaf forest.mixed broadleaf forest and wetland vegetation.The different types and the distribution pattern reflect the climate.characteristics of the transition area from middle subtropical to north subtropical and the trait of the natural environmemt of Shanghai, meanwhile, its current sitiuation also shows the change of the nature vegetation by human pressure.As the special ecosystem and a nature history heritage of Shanghai, forest vegetation is needed to be protected at Dajinshan Island and She Shan.The vegetation of Shanghai can be divided into two vegetation zones: the middle subtropical evergreen broadleaf forest and north subtropical mixed broadleaf forest.
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    Cited: CSCD(14)
    A STUDY ON COPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF HIGH/NEW TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT ZONES IN CHINA
    Zhang Wei, Gu Chaolin, Qiu Youliang, Chen Tian
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    1998, 17 (3): 233-241.   doi: 10.11821/yj1998030003
    Abstract994)      PDF (505KB)(34829)      
    Evaluation index systems for both current development situation and development condition of high/new technology development zones in China are established in this paper. Using factor analysis method, the developments and locations of 52 high/new technology development nones in China were evaluated based on these evlauation index systems, and main factor scores were obtained. According to the factor scores, the development situations and development conditions of new/high technology development zones can be divided into 3 levels. The study shows that 7 high/new technology development zones, including Beijing, Shanghai, Shenyang, Tianjin, Wuhan, Xian and Shijiazhuang, have better locations and are well developed; on the other hand, 15 high/new technology zones, such as Baotou, Zhuhai, Baoding, Anshan, Wuxi, Nanchang, Zhuzhou, Foshan, Guilin, Nanning, Xiamen, Hainan, Mianyang, Baoji and Wulumuqi, should be degraded to the province level.
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    Cited: Baidu(46)
    CONTRIBUTION OF PROF.XING JIAMING TO GEOGRAPHY SCIENCE
    Li Baotian
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    1990, 9 (3): 68-70.   doi: 10.11821/yj1990030008
    Abstract558)      PDF (279KB)(34287)      
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    Study on the model of tourist satisfaction index about tourism environment:a case study of Huangshan Mountain
    WANG Qun, DING Zu-rong, ZHANG Jin-he, YANG Xing-zhu
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2006, 25 (1): 171-181.   doi: 10.11821/yj2006010020
    Abstract2026)      PDF (286KB)(33642)      

    Assessments on tourist satisfaction about tourism environment is very popular but difficult in the field of tourism environment management.Using the model of American Customer Satisfaction Index(ACSI) for reference,this paper establishes the model of Tourist Satisfaction Index(TSI) on beauty spots.TSI includes six sections: environmental perceptions,tourism expectations,tourism values,tourist satisfaction,tourist complains and tourist loyalty.Its aim is to measure the degree of tourist satisfaction,look for the relevant factors influencing tourist satisfaction,and manage the tourism environment more effectively.This paper applies the model to Huangshan Mountain and finds its TSI is 82.34.The score is high,but it does not match with Huangshan Mountain and many problems still exist in tourism environment.By TSI,from six sections influencing tourist satisfaction,tourism value is the main influencing factor(β32=1.266),then the environmental quality(β31=0.672);the influence of tourist expectations on tourism values and satisfaction index is relatively small(γ21=-0.147,γ31=-0.265 respectively);the relations between tourist satisfaction and loyalty is obvious(β53=0.972),whether a tourist is satisfied or not directly influences whether he is loyal to destination or not.But the influence on tourist complain is small(β43=-0.16),also,if the tourist is not satisfied,perhaps he will not complain.Analyses on factors influencing six sections,the social service environment perception is the main factor influencing environmental perceptions(λ21=0.878),but natural environment is only 0.188;the influence of social service expectations on total tourism expectation is also intensive(λ2=0.94);price perceptions are the very important factor influencing tourism values(λ52=0.913).By this token,in Huangshan Mountain,the natural environment is very good,but reasonable ratio of price to quality must be given,social service environment should be improved,and the transparency of the result of travel complaint should be increased.Finally, the paper adopts multiple linear regression analysis and the model of factor-important deduction to validate.The same conclusions are made.

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    The exploitation of marine oil and gas resources and the tactic countermeasures of petroleum in China
    ZHANG Yao guang, LIU Yan, LI Chun ping, DONG Li jing
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2003, 22 (3): 297-304.   doi: 10.11821/yj2003030005
    Abstract1462)      PDF (286KB)(32766)      

    In China, petroleum is the very core of the subject on the energy security With the argument of the external dependence degree of petroleum accommodation, the problem of petroleum security becomes more and more prominent It will be an important problem of the sustainable development of economy and society in the 21st century in China China is a country which is richin marine oil and gas resources There are nearly 100×104 km2 oil bearing sedimentary basins, 240×108t offshore oil resources, 14 0×1012m3 natural gas resources, 12×108t geological reserves of oil and 2350×108m3 natural gas in the vast maritime space The exploition and utilization of marine oil and gas resources can partly solve the quantity of import on oil and gas resources This article discusses some patterns of security such as self supported security,exoteric security,substitute security and developing abroad pattern and so on And the connotation and conditions of developing abroad pattern are discussed particularly The international and domestic conditions on petroleum security and natural gas security are analyzed At the same time, the tactic countermeasures on how to solve the problem of oil and natural gas are put forward:(1)to quicken the prospection of oil and gas resources of land and sea, increase geologic reserves and proven exploitable reserves of oil and gas;(2)to establish national petrolic tactic repertory and the repertory bases quickly; (3)to improve international environment of the neighbouring countries and import oil and gas resources from abroad which serve as a channel for developing multiple import in the future;(4)to raise the position of natural gas in the structure of energy resources, the ratio of replacing petroleum with gas is added;and (5)to quicken the pace of constructing imported crude oil transportation guarantee syetem import petroleum

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    Cited: CSCD(5)
    TOWARDS THE THEORY SYSTEM OF REGIONAL ECONOMICS FROM THE VIEWPOINTS OF ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY
    Fan Jie
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    1997, 16 (1): 39-44.   doi: 10.11821/yj1997010005
    Abstract961)      PDF (473KB)(31928)      
    Because of negligence of regional economy under the centralized plan-economy-system it is impossible to bring forth scientific research on the regional economics as a result. With the substitution of economical system from plan-to market-economy the regional economy plays a more and more important role in the modernization of our country. and it is necessary to study seriously regional economics, which is also a significant way to improve economic geography. The research work of regional economy in China is divided into three parts, they are, regional economical analysis, regional economical policy and regional economical planning. Among the first part of them, classical location theory, spatial structure theory and regional growth theory are made up theory system of regional economics. This paper is focusing on the development of traditional location theory, spatial organization theory and regional growth theory in the light of regional economical development. The difference and applicability as well as the interrelationship between these theories are given a special attention in terms of the viewpoints of economic geography and parctice of China's regional development.
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    Cited: CSCD(4)
    Effects of DEM resolution on results of the SWIM hydrological model in the Changtaiguan basin
    GAO Chao, JIN Gao-jie
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2012, 31 (3): 399-408.   doi: 10.11821/yj2012030002
    Abstract1238)      PDF (784KB)(31217)      
    In this paper,the impacts of the Digital Elevation Model(DEM) with different resolutions on the simulation results of the SWIM hydrological model are examined for the Changtaiguan basin in the upper reaches of the Huaihe River basin in East China.Fifteen DEM resolutions(from resolution of 1000x1000 m to resolution of 30x30 m) are analyzed on their impacts on landscape parameters and runoff simulation results.Based on this,it is found that the best fitting DEM resolution in the study area is 90~120 m,and that both the ratio of Grid Area/Basin Area and the 'thousand million' formula are suitable methods.The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients decline with DEM resolution;yet when DEM resolution is larger than 250 m,the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients increase,because DEM grid is too coarse to display basin terrains.The simulation results of hydrological extreme events from 15 different DEM resolutions show a high variability.The high Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients do not reflect the hydrological extreme events,especially in the flood period.For the dry season,the simulation results of the 15 DEM resolutions show relatively good results.The results of the SWIM hydrological model are more sensitive to precipitation when the DEM resolution is decreasing.
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    Cited: CSCD(12)
    The analysis of Chinese geographical history research path:From science history to intellectual history and the shift of geographical traditions
    SUN Jun, PAN Yujun, TANG Maolin
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2014, 33 (3): 589-600.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201403017
    Abstract1182)      PDF (1117KB)(30613)      
    Modern Chinese geographical disciplinary system has been established by introducing Anglophone geography. Such a situation impels historians to focus on the progress of knowledge, theory and disciplinary system in ancient China, and the progress of these contributions can be divided into two main phases. During the science history research stage from the 1940s to the 1980s, Wang Yong, a Chinese geographical historian, carded the basic geographical knowledge, but he concluded that there was not a discipline of geography in ancient China. On the contrary, Hou Renzhi, Wang Chengzu, Ju Jiwu, Yu Xixian et al., and a team of geoscience from the Institute for the History of Natural Sciences under the Chinese Academy of Sciences believed that there was a discipline of geography in ancient China, and they discussed disciplinary meta-questions such as object, content, theory, and system etc. After the 1980s, serial works about geographical thought history were published by geographical historians Zhou Chunti, Yang Wuyang, Wang Hongwen, Liu Shengjia, Zhao Rong, Pan Yijun and Wang Aimin, and they described the progress of geographical concept, assumptions, experiment, law, proposition, theory, method, research paradigm in China, and tried to card and foresee the key issues in geographical thought. From Dynastic Geography to Historical Geography: A Change in Perspective towards the Geographical Past of China is an original work which discovers that the primary characteristic of Chinese ancient geography was a distinct humanistic concern reflected in its research content and methodology. According to these works, we discuss the shift of geographical tradition in China: before the Christian era, there was a tradition of investigated and researched nature, and Chinese scholars kept a watchful eye on the human world; after the Christian era, much attention was paid to the human world, and the tradition of investigated and researched nature was reduced; since the 1950s, there has been a strong original relationship between Chinese and Anglophone geography.
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    Contents of PAH compounds in different types of soils in Tianjin area
    WANG Xue jun, REN Li ran, DAI Yong ning, CHEN Jing, PIAO Xiu ying, TAO Shu
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2003, 22 (3): 360-366.   doi: 10.11821/yj2003030012
    Abstract1689)      PDF (295KB)(30427)      

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been identified as important pollutants in the environment Researches on the pollution situation of PAHs in soils have been carried out extensively in many countries In comparison, few large scale researches have been seen in China In this paper, the contents and pollution level of sixteen PAH compounds in surface soils in different types of soil utilization in Tianjin area were studied Results show that the highest contents of PAHs could be found in soils in urban areas The contents of a few compounds in soils irrigated with wastewater were also relatively high, but most compounds show similar contents compared with other types of soils such as the general cropland and unused land The ratio of low circle PAHs / high circle PAHs and the ratio of pyrene / benzo\pyrene have been used to identify the sources of PAHs pollution Among the six kinds of soils, the ratios of low circle PAHs / high circle PAHs for five kinds of soils were lower than 1, except for urban soils This has demonstrated that the PAHs pollution in Tianjin soils were mainly caused by the burning of fossil fuels The ratio of pyrene / benzo\pyrene shows that the high contents of PAHs in urban soils were mainly caused by pollution of transportation A Dutch Soil Remediation Standard was applied for assessing the pollution situation of the soils in Tianjin area Results show that all surface soils have been polluted in a certain extent by some compounds of PAHs Among the different soil types, the urban soils suffered the most serious pollution

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    Cited: CSCD(32)
    CHINESE CRITICAL ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATION AND AREA
    Yang Qinye, Zhang Yili, Li Goudong
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    1992, 11 (4): 1-10.   doi: 10.11821/yj1992040001
    Abstract721)      PDF (819KB)(29834)      
    Anthropogenic environmental degradation is greatly disadvantageous to people's surviving and sufficient,rational utilization of natural conditions and natural resources.This paper explains how to compile "the Chinese map of critical eco-environmental situation and areas (1:10000000)" on the basis of the method applied and provided by the Russian geographers and revised according to the Chinese characteristics.About 100 different sizes of the most critical areas are reflected on the map,and they concentrate in the trausitional belt between semiarid and subhumid districts and the populous industrial areas,the former is Chinese backward economic region where eco-environment is compained with poverty and the latter is environment-affected regions by industry.As for provincial distribution,the eco-environmental situation of Zhejiang,Fujia,Anhui,Xizang (Tibet) and Xinjiang Provinces (or autonomous regions) is inless critical level,and that of Jilin,Liaoning,He-bei,Shanxi,Ningxia,Sichuan and Jiangsu is in the most critical level,and it also approaches to the international research on this subject.It points out that this research provides a probable method to have an integrated research combining natural and human sciences.In such aspects to recognize the human impact and delineate the scope of eco-environmental problems and the critical degrees through the landuse situation and population density,there is something needed to be improved because thfs kind of landuse classification according to the human impact (including technology factors) is not completely suitable for Chinese situation.
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    Cited: CSCD(16)
    EXPLOITATION OF MINERAL RESOURCES IN THE EASTCONASTAL AREAS OF CHINA AND ITS SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN 21ST CENTURY
    Fang Chuanglin, Dong Suocheng
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    1997, 16 (1): 85-91.   doi: 10.11821/yj1997010011
    Abstract477)      PDF (541KB)(29695)      
    Mineral resources are the vital physical bases for the pledge of sustainable economic development in the east coastal areas of China. The continuous growth of economy in this region will be seriously limited by many resources factors such as low-guaranteed level, expanding gap between demand and supply, tendency of the mineral resources exhausting, and consequently a series of envirionmental problems coming from the exploitation of resources, etc.. Right now, serious wastes are still happening in the resources processing and exploitation, causing the low utilization rate of the resources. ln order to guarantee the rapid development of economy and to improve the environmental qualities of this region in the next century, the following strategic countermeasures should be adopted. (1) To improve the adjustment pace of the resource industries, to economize the resources to a maximum extent, and to tap the new mineral resources by all means. (2) To acquire the point of view of global resources, to expand the utilization of the international mineral resources, through the enlargement of the international volume of trade and the adjustment Of the structure of import and export trade, to increase the import and to decrease the export of the mineral products to alleviate the restriction of economic development in coastal region of China, and to establish the resource guarantee system under the open policy. (3) To take the intensive and comprehensive way in the utilization of the resources based on technology improvement, to enhance the comprehensive exploitation and utilization rate of the mineral resources and the waste resources of the mineral industry. (4) To spread the sanitary productive technology, to reduce the pollution by means of complete control from the very beginning to the end of production and consumption. (5) To apply the scientific principles of mineral resources, to establish the physical and valueaccount of different mineral resources and to set up resource/asset managment system bounded bythe property right.
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    Mobile social theory construction and urban geographic research in the information era
    ZHEN Feng, ZHAI Qing, CHEN Gang, SHEN Li-zhen
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2012, 31 (2): 197-206.   doi: 10.11821/yj2012020001
    Abstract1112)      PDF (518KB)(29300)      
    Advances in information technology are the core of the information revolution.The information revolution has been the important driving force to promote the current national,regional and urban socio-economic development and rapid transformation.And it lasting and profoundly impacts and changes inherent understanding,which has formed socio-economic and spatial structure since the Industrial Revolution.Along with the acceleration of the construction of high-speed railways,rapid development of regional cities and wisdom of city's construction,mobile communication technology is moving us into a new mobile information age.Due to time and space concept is redefined,a new space-time emerges,which makes urban geography a fundamental change.Research paradigm,methods and content of urban geography have begun to change dramatically,so traditional theoretical framework cannot meet the needs for the current research any longer.This paper analyzes the influence of mobile communications technology on the change of network and geospatial information space,and proposes mobile social theory framework based on mobile information technology,that is to say,intelligent cities melt technics,economy,society,and space.The construction of intelligent cities contains four levels: system level,technical level,economic level and social level.At the system level,it is important to improve positive interaction of the governments,enterprises,scientific institutions,private institutions,and make institutional arrangement.We should build a mobile community technology platform based on the wireless network,IOT,mobile devices at the technical level.Based on the development of mobile information,services become the focus of other industries at the economic level.Mobile social networks can actively promote communication between people at the social level.Then paper explores the research methods of urban geography of the mobile information age,and research priorities from urban space and form transformation,travel behavior,urban and regional spatial effect to urban and regional governance,and so on.We wish that urban geography research would better serve urban and regional development,planning and governance in mobile information era.
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    Cited: CSCD(32)
    Energy supply security assessment of China and the influencing factors based on set pair analysis
    XUE Jingjing, SHEN Lei, LIU Litao, GAO Tianming, CHEN Fengnan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2014, 33 (5): 842-852.   doi: 10.11821/dlyj201405004
    Abstract1050)      PDF (1486KB)(29254)      
    As a large energy production and consumption country, China's energy supply security issues have attracted much concern. Even some international organizations which have ulterior motives heavily hype "China energy threat". For the actual outstanding problems of China's energy supply, we need to carry out a comprehensive evaluation of the energy supply security. It helps to make a profound understanding of China's energy supply security situation and identify the major obstacle factors. And based on this we could strengthen policy protection. According to the concept of energy supply security, the paper built comprehensive evaluation index system of energy supply security, the assessment model and indicators evaluation criterion model based on set pair analysis method. The entropy method was applied to determine the index weights. And the level of energy supply security, the evolution feature and the main obstacle factors in recent years were profoundly analyzed. The results of the research show that from 2000 to 2008 China's energy supply security level is III, it rises to II in 2010 and I in 2009 and 2011. The relation degree between China's energy supply security exponent and optimal evaluation set I rises with fluctuations, increasing from-0.46 in 2000 to 0.23 in 2011. The obstacle factors analysis of China's energy supply security shows that the price index of energy products and energy processing and conversion efficiency are the top two obstacle factors, whose occurrence frequency reach to 91.67%, followed by the renewable energy share and the reserve-production ratio reaching to 83.33%. In recent years, China's energy consumption continuously increased, while the energy supply security level improved rather than fall, which is inseparable from the implementation of positive energy policy. Based on domestic resources advantages and development base, enhancing the energy supply support capability;technological innovation; improving energy efficiency;diversified development;deepening reform, building system and mechanism for promoting energy sustainable development;enhancing energy "going out" and "bringing in" level. All the above measures effectively promoted China's energy supply security and provide a good opportunity and the environment for China's energy development. In the long run, with comprehensive national power increasing and technological progress, there is a big potential for China's energy supply, and the energy supply security has greater room for improvement.
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    Cited: CSCD(7)
    Spatial and temporal characteristics of MODIS vegetation index in the source region of three rivers on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China
    SONG Dong-mei, ZHANG Qian, YANG Xiu-chun, GUO Peng, WEN Shao-yan
    GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH    2011, 30 (11): 2067-2075.   doi: 10.11821/yj2011110013
    Abstract1515)      PDF (1176KB)(28853)      
    This article conducts a systematic research on the spatial and temporal characteristics in the source region of three rivers on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, using 16-day 250 m NDVI and EVI of MODIS data in 2007. The results indicated that the spatial distribution of the NDVI and the EVI had very obvious regional characteristics, which presented a gradual reducing tendency of the NDVI and EVI values from southeast to northwest in the study area. The regular seasonal variations of vegetation index were very distinct, with the maximum value in August. The variation trends of two kinds of vegetation indices were consistent at different altitudes, which showed that the functions of NDVI and EVI were quite consistent. The difference value between NDVI and EVI gradually increased with the increase of vegetation index value, while EVI was more stable than NDVI as an indicator for vegetation variation. The research on the relationship between vegetation index and meteorological elements showed that the monthly mean temperature, precipitation and the vegetation index presented significant correlation dependence. In the study area, the correlation coefficient value between the current month precipitation and the next month vegetation index was much greater than that between the current month precipitation and the current month vegetation index, indicating that there was a time lag relation between the vegetation index and the precipitation. However, there was no relation between the vegetation index and the monthly average temperature. The effect of the precipitation on the vegetation growth was greater than that of the temperature.
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    Cited: CSCD(11)
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