Table of Content

    20 July 2010, Volume 29 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Earth Surface Processes
    The assessment of regional vulnerability to natural disasters in China based on DEA model
    LIU Yi, HUANG Jian-yi, MA Li
    2010, 29 (7):  1153-1162.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1305KB) ( )   Save

    As one of world's worst natural disasters inflicting countries, China is frequently suffered by the ravages of natural disasters,which have had a negative effect on people's lives and caused huge economic losses annually. Presently, the study of vulnerability has played an important part in the research on natural disasters, which emphasizes the relationship between human society and the effects of disasters, and measurement of the capability to overcome natural disasters in different regions with distinctive economy. The purpose of the vulnerability analysis is to identify appropriate actions that can be taken to reduce the potential natural disaster damages, so it is of great practical significance to study China's vulnerability to natural disasters. Traditional methods for vulnerability analysis calculate sub-indices based on disaster frequency, loss, the economic impact and the population of each region, and then use the sub-indices to obtain a composite index for regional vulnerability. However those methods has a shortcoming, which are sensitive to weight set for sub-indices and the selection of the vulnerability functions. As a result, the analytic results are less convincing, so a data envelopment analysis (DEA)-based model for analysis of regional vulnerability to natural disasters is presented here to improve the traditional methods, and data from 2001 to 2008 of China are analyzed. Under the framework of the regional natural disaster system, this paper firstly constructs an input-output DEA model for the regional disasters system from three aspects, including the danger of regional disasters, the exposure of regional soc-economy and the regional natural disaster losses, using the efficiency calculated by the DEA to imitate the regional vulnerability to natural disasters, and then it makes an analysis of the differentiation of the regional vulnerability to natural disasters. The result shows that the overall level of vulnerability to natural disasters of China is high, and the geographical pattern for vulnerability is Western Region > Central Region > Eastern Region. In addition, there is a negative correlation between the level of regional vulnerability and regional economic level, that is, the more economically developed regions has lower regional vulnerability.

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    The scale relationship of sediment discharge, erosion amount and sediment delivery ratio in drainage basin: A case study in the Ganjiang River Basin
    JING Ke, JIAO Ju-ying, LI Lin-yu, ZHANG Shi-jie
    2010, 29 (7):  1163-1170.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070002
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    The research of sediment discharge, erosion amount and sediment delivery ratio is known as frontier topics in the field of soil erosion and sediment yield in a drainage basin, with the hope that the research results of slope or runoff plot could be transformed into much larger areas according to the theory of scale transformation. Based on the measured sediment discharge, calculated erosion amounts and sediment delivery ratio in the Ganjiang River Basin, this paper discusss the relationships of the three variables at a basin scale, and analyzs the possibilities of scale transformation of the three variables. Both the scatter diagrams and correlation equations of the three variables and drainage areas reflected the fact that the three variables are not correlative with the drainage area and against the conclusion that the three variables have inverse relations with the drainage area presented by some scholars. It also describs the connotation of basin area and its relationship with the influencing factors of sediment discharge, erosion amount and sediment delivery ratio. The result reveals that there is no scaling effect between the influencing factors of the three variables and basin areas. Therefore, there is little possibility for scale transformation in sediment discharge, erosion amount and sediment delivery ratio in the Ganjiang River Basin. Further research work should be done to find out if this conclusion could be reliable and have a universal meaning.

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    Reference value of 137Cs tracing technique in soil loss estimation: A spatial variation analysis
    LIU Yu, LV Yi-he, FU Bo-jie, LIU Guo-hua
    2010, 29 (7):  1171-1181.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1363KB) ( )   Save

    Soil erosion and its eco-environmental effects are important issues among environmental topics. Quantitative estimation or measurement of soil loss is one of the main fields in soil erosion researches. As a short-time consuming and relatively simple method, 137Cs tracing technique was widely applied in quantitative estimation of soil loss caused by natural driving forces or human activities. Measurement of reference value is fundamental in estimating soil loss rate by the 137Cs tracing method. Impacted by multi factors that intrinsically are of spatial heterogeneity, 137Cs background fallout varied across landscapes. It was enucleated here how weather, topography, soil properties and land use/cover impacted spatial distribution of 137Cs and strengthened its spatial variation. Meanwhile, existence of soil sample sites for 137Cs references deposition value measurement and veracity of sample site selection were discussed. Based on the above analysis, a framework subdividing target area into humongous measurement units and employing hierarchical multi-reference system and topographical rectification were suggested as solutions for handling spatial heterogeneity of 137Cs reference value. Further studies are needed to quantify the effect of each factor on spatial variation of 137Cs reference fallout and to eventually establish principles and methods for subdividing measurement unit.

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    Vegetation succession of the medium and low mountainous areas along the subtropics of the upper Yangtze River in recent 500 years
    LAN Yong
    2010, 29 (7):  1182-1192.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070004
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    In this paper, the author holds that the sub-tropical medium and low mountainous areas, at an altitude of 3000-1500m above the sea level along the upper reaches of the Yangtze River were mainly covered with arbors mixed with meadow landscape 500 years ago, rather than meadow and shrub-grass-based landscape today. Since man mostly live on flat grounds, platforms and hilly regions at an altitude below 1500 m, human activities have little impact on the mountainous areas over 1500 m. In short, along the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, wetland and grass-slope zone in the low hills with 1500-3000 m above the sea level, which was described statically by modern geologists, was actually mixed coniferous and deciduous forests dominated by abies and picea 500 years ago. The main reasons for the change are land cultivation, commercial logging and timber gathering for the imperial palaces in recent 500 years. The ecological environment thus cannot be completely restored, either by artificial or natural reconstruction. Timber gathering for the imperial palaces and commercial logging had a great impact on the forest of medium and low mountains along the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. Phoebe and China Fir chopping greatly affected the canopy density of the forest in particular, but it exerted no introgression to the forest resources. Land cultivation, especially the stable farming activities which had dug a large amount of roots, made it impossible for the recovery of the forest resources. So far we have not found out the causes of the vegetation alteration, of which how much was caused by the climate change, so further study is needed.

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    Environment and Ecology
    Particle size distribution and health risk assessment of heavy metals in surface dust of Wuhu urban area
    FANG Feng-man, JIANG Bing-yan, WANG Hai-dong, XIE Hong-fang
    2010, 29 (7):  1193-1202.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070005
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    A total of 21 surface dust samples were collected in High-tech Development Zone, Center City, Economic and Technological Development Zone in Wuhu urban area. Concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb, Co, Ni, Mn, Cr, V and Cu on different particle sizes were analyzed by ICP-OES in this paper. Research into the exposure and health risk assessment of heavy metals on the fine size dust was carried out by using USEPA health risk assessment model. Results showed that: the range of the change for the nine heavy metals in surface dust in Wuhu urban area was quite large and there exit different degrees of pollution, in which the average concentration of Cd was over 30 times of the soil background value. As far as the concentration was concerned, Economic and Technological Development Zone witnessed the highest concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb, Co, Ni and Cu, High-tech Development Zone found the highest concentration of Mn, and Central City saw the highest concentrations of Cr and V. Particle size distribution had a significant influence on pollutant concentrations. Some 160-200 and >200 mesh sizes were at the main pollution level. Heavy metals were mainly enriched in the >200 mesh particle size and the enrichment ratio was about 50% in the order of Cd>Cu>Zn>Cr>Ni>Pb>Co>V>Mn. Human exposure risk assessment showed that hand-mouth intake was the main way for childrens' heavy metals exposure to fine particle size of surface dust, followed by skin absorption, and the exposure to heavy metals through air inhalation was the smallest. The order of non-cancerous hazard indexes of metals was Pb>Cr>Mn>V>Cu>Cd>Co>Ni>Zn. There were no significant risks, but the superposition of all the heavy metals on childrens' degree of non-cancer risk was up to 0.753, so we should pay more attention to cumulative pollution and potential risks. The non-cancerous risk indexes of the nine heavy metals from the three ways was 1.266 in Economic and Technological Development Zone, showing a potential non-cancerous risk to the health of the children. Cancer risks of Cr, Cd, Co and Ni were lower than their threshold values, indicating a lower risk of cancer and without health hazards.

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    Spatial variations of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous in tidal salt marsh soils of the Minjiang River estuary
    TONG Chuan, JIA Rui-xia, WANG Wei-qi, ZENG Cong-sheng
    2010, 29 (7):  1203-1212.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070006
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    The Minjiang River estuary is a typical tidal estuary in the southeast of China, and the Shanyutan wetland (between 119°34'12″-119°40'40″E and 26°00'36″-26°03'42″N) is the largest estuarine wetland in the Minjiang River estuary area. The climate is relatively warm and wet, with a mean annual temperature of 19.6 ℃ and a mean annual precipitation of 1350 mm. The samples were collected in 18 soil profiles with a depth of 60 cm under three dominated macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Cyperus malacceusis var.bervifolius and Scirpus triqueter) in two different inundated districts far from and near a tide ditch in the middle of the Shanyutan wetland. These soil samples were divided into layers of 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-50 and 50-60 cm in depth. The soil properties and DOC, TN, TP, NH+4-N and NO-3-N contents and storages were measured. The concentrations of DOC in a depth of 0-10 cm ranged from 13.68 to 93.73 mg kg-1, TN from 0.24 to 1.91 g kg-1, and TP, 0.21-1.34 g kg-1. The DOC, TN and TP concentrations of the soils under P. australis and C. malacceusis were similar, which was higher than DOC and TN concentration under Scirpus triqueter in the area far from and near the tide ditch. The TN and TP contents and storages near the tide ditch were significantly higher than that far from the tide ditch for S.triqueter wetland, however, for the P. australis and C. malacceusis wetlands, the TN and TP contents in the area far from and near the tide ditch were similar. Besides, the DOC, TN and TP contents in soils were significantly correlated with the soil grain size, bulk density and moisture. The soil salinity values had a positive correlation with NH+4-N content, and a negative correlation with NO+3-N. The DOC, TN and TP contents in the Shanyutan tidal wetland were much similar with those in the Yangtze River and Pearl River estuaries, and some coastal regions across the world.

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    Suitability evaluation of livestock farm spatial layout at county-level based on GIS
    YAN Bo-jie, PAN Yu-chun, ZHAN Chun-jiang, GUO Xin, YIN Hong-mei
    2010, 29 (7):  1213-1221.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070007
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    To carry out spatial layouts of suburban livestock farms better, the research analyzed the influencing factors for suitability evaluation of livestock farm spatial layout from the view of environmental factors, economic factors, public health and epidemic prevention factors, land use status factors, laws, regulations and policies factors. The selection and weight determination of evaluation factors of spatial layout of suburban livestock farm, supported by geographical information technology, was determined by delphi method and analytic hierarchy process and potential pollution of livestock manure in farmland soil environment was evaluated. On this basis, this paper, taking Daxing District in Beijing as an example, constructed evaluation of adaptability index system in planning of spatial arrangement for livestock farm, and realized evaluation of adaptability in planning of spatial arrangement for livestock farm in landmass for unit. The result showed that most parts of the region were forbidden and unsuitable area for farm, and 34% of total area, after environmental pollution effect caused by livestock farm was considered, in accordance to the development demand of urban modern agriculture in Beijing, was suitable for developing the livestock farm.

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    Land Resource and Use
    Available land index items and their calculational methods for Major Function Oriented Regionalization
    XU Yong, TANG Qing, FAN Jie, LIU Ruomei, ZHOU Yi
    2010, 29 (7):  1222-1231.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070008
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    Calculating and assessing available land (reserved construction land potential) is a key foundation of Major Function Oriented Regionalization. Under the background of land resources scarcity and the policy of cultivated land conservation, precisely evaluating land resources, especially reserved construction land of different regions seems to be one of important issues on how to put forward Major Function Oriented Regionalization. The article puts emphasis on definition, function, factor parameters, and arithmetic and technique course of available land for Major Function Oriented Regionalization. With the help of GIS spatial analysis techniques, using Digital Elevation Map (DEM), TM remote sensing land use map of 2000, administrative map at county level and land use investigation data of 2005, the article calculated and assessed quantity and spatial differentiation of available land of China in 2005. The results show that: available land area for construction in China amounts to 28.54×104 km2, which accounts for 3.01% of the total land area. Available land area per capita is 0.34 mu/person, and the main characteristics of spatial differentiation show that: the high value areas are concentrated in Northeast China, northern part of North China, Northwest China and the middle reaches of the Yellow River, while the low value areas are aggregated on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and densely populated areas of Central and Eastern China. Available land is a comprehensive index for assessing land capacity of population agglomeration, industrialization and urbanization in different regions. However, as a lot of factors are related to the index, one single index (available land area or available land area per capita) cannot precisely reflect all the contents of the index of available land. In the process of practical application, a few issues should be concerned. Firstly, available land index items consist of three factors: quantity, quality and scale of massing of reserved construction land. Available land area and available land area per capita are two key indices based on the single factor method. Secondly, supplementary indices should be set up, such as abundance of available land per capita, abundance of available land, and etc. Finally, according to the definition of the index, available land should be derived from residual available land, potential available land and adjusting available land. The location of the study area, work targets, scale of the study area and data accessibility should also be focused in the practical process of calculating and assessing available land.

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    Study on hydrological response to land use and land cover change in Dali River Basin, Shaanxi Province
    LI Li-juan, JIANG De-juan, YANG Jun-wei, LI Jiu-yi
    2010, 29 (7):  1232-1242.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070009
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    In recent years, the research on the hydrological response to Land Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) has been an international frontier and a key problem. In Dali River Basin, LUCC, including soil and water conservation, have strong impacts on water cycle and water balance. Therefore, it is essential to study hydrological response to LUCC in this river basin. First, based on the land use data in 1990, 1995 and 2000, the spatial and temporal characteristics of LUCC were analyzed. And then, using the Time Series Analysis Method of characteristic parameters and the rainfall-runoff model, hydrological response to LUCC in Dali River Basin were studied. The results showed that farmland and grassland were the primary land use types in Dali River Basin. For recent 10 years, the area of farmland and grassland decreased and the area of forest and constructed land increased gradually. The mean annual and monthly runoff showed a distinct decreasing trend. LUCC and soil and water conservation distinctly decreased the mean annual runoff and the runoff during flood season, and increased the runoff during non-flood season. Furthermore, compared with precipitation variation, human activities were dominant factors for these hydrological responses, and for this reason, the decreased runoff reached 2616.6×104 m3 during 1990-2000, which accounted for 62.19% of the total amount of the decreased runoff.

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    Progress in the study of scale issues in land change science
    CHEN Rui-shan, CAI Yun-long
    2010, 29 (7):  1244-1256.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070010
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    Scale issues are the focus of land change science. Systematical summary of the progress of the scale issues in land change studying at home and abroad for recent ten years shows that: the scale issues in land change study mainly focused on data processing, pattern and process representing, the influence of driving forces, application of models, environmental effects, land policy and sustainable management. Scale issues arise primarily from the heterogeneity of geographical phenomena, hierarchy of geographical systems, non-linear characteristics of the response and feedback, influence of the disturbance, limitations of subjective awareness and so on. The scale issues have puzzled the development of land change science, Land Use and Land Cover change (LUCC), Global Land Project (GLP), Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and other major international projects, which all have taken the scale issues as a prior concern in its research agenda. It is urgent that multi-case synthesis, multi-level data processing, understanding of the relationships between global and local scales and the application of landscape ecology research paradigm should deal with scaling. The general approach of scale study is scale selection - scale analysis - scale integration; when performing the scale selection, we should consider the questions which would be solved and the data which can be collected, then choose the appropriate scale; when performing the scale analysis, it is required that analysis should be carried out on larger and smaller scales at the same time, to find a significant change in dynamics, to prevent the omission or exaggeration of information. Scaling is the bond to recognize the relationship between global and local scales, which can be divided into scaling-up and scaling-down, when performing the scaling, the method is the key problem, whose objective is to find the "connectivity" between scales. Models can help to deeply understand the land use system dynamics, thus developing the nested model is the key problem in scaling study nowadays, for example, to nest the CLUE-S with ABM/LC and so on.

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    Urban and Rural Studies
    Study on structure of urban system in China from the angles of distance between cities and city population size
    WANG Mao-jun, CAO Guang-zhong, ZHAO Qun-yi, YANG Xue-chun
    2010, 29 (7):  1257-1268.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070011
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    Urban population size is an important object of study in the field of urban system. The population size and its hierarchy of a certain city in the urban system may be affected by other cities around it and the distance between them, while the influencing factors are ignored in some traditional theories of urban development such as base/non-base economic theory. Using the city population (Shi Ren Kou) in the fifth census as the index of city population size and the railway transportation distance as the index of distance among cities, this paper verified that the city population size can be explained efficiently by the distance among cities in the urban system in China, North China and South China. It also explored the quantitive relationship between the population size of a certain city i (Pi ) and other factors including the population size of the nearest city n(Pn) and the distance between i and n(Din), the population size of the primary city s (Ps) and the distance between i and s (Dis), the population size of the regional central city c(Pc) and the distance between i and c (Dic). The result indicates that, 1) in the whole urban system in China, Pi can be explained by Pn,Din and Dic , while Pn and Din have a positive influence on Pi and Dic has a negative influence, and Pn is the most important influencing factor, followed by Din and Dic; 2) in the urban system of North China, Pn, Din and Dic have positive influences and Din is the most important influencing factor, followed by Pn and Dic; 3) in the urban system in South China, the factors and their influences are the same as those in the urban system in China, 4) the quantitative relationship between Din and ordinal number R of city n in the urban system is the same as that between city population size and its ordinal number.

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    Investigation of the capitalization of municipal government infrastructure investment on housing market: Hedonic model based on Guangzhou housing price data
    LI Xun, FU Wen-ying
    2010, 29 (7):  1269-1280.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070012
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    Hedonic pricing model is a tool frequently used in the analysis of housing market in western developed countries. It has a high degree of pertinence and real-time, and is a scientific method to measure externality. In the transforming context of house commercialization, it is feasible to do research on the housing market from the angle of housing demand, and with the launch of property tax in China, proper measure in the monetary value of externality from the public service is of great meaning to setting a scientific fiscal plan for the government. This article establishes the Hedonic model for Guangzhou housing market by using data in three independent time series in 2005, 2006 and 2007, and explores the impact of floor ratio, area, distance from CBD, distance from the shopping center, rail accessibility, water view, park accessibility, primary school, secondary school, prestigious primary school, prestigious secondary school and campus on the housing price. The article reveals the changing tendency and degree of the housing preference of Guangzhou residents over time and the reason of the change. It also effectively measures the capitalization degree of the infrastructure investment of Guangzhou municipal government on housing market. The result shows that Guangzhou residents have increasing preference to central location, good transportation accessibility, large-scale resident districts and water view. For Guangzhou municipal government, the long-term public investment in subway construction, landscape reconstruction and education quality enhancement has been reflected by the housing market as the increasing housing preference to these variables. The article also conducts a relatively accurate measurement of the degree of this investment effect by the Hedonic model. Finally, the article views the application prospect of Hedonic pricing model in China in the context of local government-oriented urban development.

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    Study of temporal and spatial characteristics of students' behavior in Hangzhou Xiasha higher education eastern park
    QI Huang-xiong, CHEN Li-zhang
    2010, 29 (7):  1281-1290.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070013
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    There are more than 90 university towns in China which are widely distributed in 27 provinces or cities, including the projects that have been completed and that are being built. In the process of rapid development of university towns, the design and construction are more focused on the material form than on the actual demand of people. Almost all the research for the establishment of university towns are based on the concepts of sharing and interaction, although scholars in economics, education, geography and planning science try to study them from different angles. Therefore, this paper explores how the spatial elements influence the temporal and spatial characteristics of the students' living and learning behaviors by the case of Hangzhou Xiasha higher education eastern park, so as to provide the case data and thoughts for the improvement of planning and development of university towns for the needs of college students. This paper analyzes the temporal and spatial characteristics of students' behavior in the Hangzhou Xiasha higher education eastern park based on the data collected from interviews and questionnaire surveys, and compares them with the behaviors of students whose colleges are situated in urban areas. The survey shows that differences exist between the freshmen and the senior students in patterns of spatial behavior and spatial selection, so do differences between the students located in urban and suburban areas. This paper analyzes the behaviors in angles of both behavior patterns and behavior space, explores the reasons for these differences, and come to a conclusion that the students' behavior is affected by spatial layout in four aspects: (1) functional division; (2) campus location and transportation; (3) tree-shaped space structure; (4) public space and facility layout. Finally, three suggestions are put forward: (1) improve management system in the eastern park as to enhance efficiency on facilities sharing; (2) strengthen the interaction between universities and community; (3) introduce people-oriented concept in the planning and construction of university town to meet the reasonable spatial needs of teachers and students.

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    Economy and Regional Development
    Inter-provincial differences of the strength of urbanization response to the industrial structure evolution in China
    LIU Yan-jun, LI Cheng-gu, WANG Ying
    2010, 29 (7):  1291-1304.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070014
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    This paper presented the concept of the strength of urbanization response to the industrial structure evolution, and regarded the coefficient of urbanization response to the industrial structure evolution as the variable index in measuring the strength of urbanization response to the industrial structure evolution. Through using standard deviation(δ), variation coefficient (V), relative development rate (Nich), deviation (Di) and ratio (Gi), the authors analyzed the inter-provincial differences of the strength of urbanization response to the industrial structure evolution in China. Furthermore, this paper discussed the influencing factors for the inter-provincial differences of the strength of urbanization response. The results indicated that: the strength of urbanization response to the industrial structure evolution in China increased continuously from 1953 to 2006, and it was characterized by stage change. There existed significant tempo-spatial differences of the strength of urbanization response to the industrial structure evolution of various provinces of China from static and dynamic situation. The 31 provinces of China can be identified into five types: strong response type, relatively strong response type, middle response type, relatively weak response type and weak response type. Urban development intensity had significant positive correlations with the strength of urbanization response to the industrial structure evolution.

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    Temporal and spatial differences and growth of convergence concerning industrial economy in Jiangsu
    CHEN Xiao, CHEN Wen, WANG Dan
    2010, 29 (7):  1305-1316.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070015
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    Differences and the convergence in the regional economy are the current hot spots in academic research. However, the research involves relatively few fields associated to the industrial economy. According to this, this paper divides Jiangsu province into three regions, and with this regional setting and the method of quantitative analysis, the paper selects some relevant indicators about the industrial economy in Jiangsu Province at county level from 1980 to 2007. Then the paper uses the Theil index and β convergence test to analyze the difference and the convergence of industrial economy in Jiangsu province in different periods and different areas. Finally, the main reasons leading to the convergence are discussed based on the above calculation results. The main conclusions are drawn as follows. Firstly, there is convergence both in the three areas and among areas. But with the elapse of time, the speed of convergence shows a downward trend. Then the dimension of industrial difference among areas fluctuates up and down, however it also keeps increasing in the fluctuations with the time on a whole. And the industrial economy difference among areas dominates the whole province. Secondly, the dimension of industrial difference in areas reaches the maximum in southern Jiangsu and the minimum in northern Jiangsu. From the results, at the same time, we can find the speed of industrial economy convergence in Jiangsu is getting slower and slower when the economy develops. We can also see that developed areas have faster speed of convergence, while less developed regions have slower speed of convergence. Besides, differences and convergence of industrial economy are mainly due to the changing conditions of industrial structure, newly increased fixed assets, talents and technology, transportation volume, etc. Although the industrial economy differences has become lower and lower and there is convergence among areas, the industrial economy differences will not be eliminated in a long period of time.

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    Regional differences of agricultural development in a typical transect in Jiangsu Province
    CHEN Yu-fu, ZHANG Ying-wen, LIU Yan-sui
    2010, 29 (7):  1317-1323.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070016
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    Differences of agricultural development in a typical region along the national highway 204 in Jiangsu Province were studied based on the indexes of agricultural production and its growth rate, the proportion of agriculture in GDP, agricultural industry structure and comparative advantage of agriculture. Below were the results. First, the disparity in overall agricultural development between the counties in the region was becoming larger over the past three decades. The growth rates of agricultural production displayed a pattern of "north-higher and south-lower". Second, the proportions of agricultural product to gross domestic product of all the counties in the region were descending over the past three decades with the largest descending extent in the three southern counties. The disparity in agricultural proportion between the counties in the region was becoming larger over the past three decades. Third, agricultural industry structure also showed remarkable changes in all the counties, thereinto, plant industry proportion was descending and fishery proportion was ascending. The disparity in planting industry proportion and in fishery proportion between the counties in the region was becoming larger over the past three decades. Fourth, the pattern of "north-higher and south-lower" in comparative advantage degree of agriculture in the region was intensified over the past three decades with the lowest degree in the three southern counties and the highest degree in the northern counties. The results revealed processes of regional disparity and differentiation in the region since the implementation of the reform and opening up policy. The agricultural production function was shrinking gradually during the processes in the southern area due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. In reverse, agricultural production function became more important than ever in the northern area as a traditional farming area.

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    Culture and Tourism
    Path dependence in travel route formation in ancient village tourism destinations:An empirical study of Xidi and Hongcun
    XU Hong-gang, WU Yue-fang, PENG Li-juan
    2010, 29 (7):  1324-1334.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070017
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    In recent years, visiting ancient villages, ancient towns or world cultural heritages has been popular. However, with tourism development in the humanistic destinations, problems have emerged. The over concentration of travel routes has been criticized for a long time,as it leads to a series of consequences, including the spatial concentration of tourist activities, confined business opportunities, limited resident participation and unbalanced community development. Although local residents as an integrated community are crucial in forming an attractive humanistic and cultural landscape in these destinations,it is possible for only a small proportion of them living along the travel routes or owning farmland to be fully integrated in tourism development. The permeation of tourism into the community breaks down the balanced status and perplexes the power relation, where there might be disparity and conflict. Moreover, concentration of tourist activities places tremendous pressure on heritage, infrastructure and tourism management, while it also deteriorates the satisfaction of both the tourists and residents. However, although dispersion of tourist activity has been advocated by the tourism experts, few measures have been taken. This paper analyzes the formation and solidification of travel routes in ancient village destinations in the cases of Xidi and Hongcun world heritage sites. It points out that it is not optimistic in tourism management, community participation and development as well as in heritage protection, which are not economically, socially, culturally or environmentally sustainable. The solidification process of the travel routes follows a path dependence pattern often discussed in neo-institutional economics. There are six feedback loops motivating the process, including the mass tourist market structure, Chinese consumptive culture, ancient architecture protection, power relation, institution settings and economic factor. System dynamics is utilized to model the feedback system. Currently, the travel routes in Xidi and Hongcun are locked in an unsatisfactory status, where drastic change will be under tremendous opportunity cost.

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    A study on the formation mechanism of tourism destination choosing intention based on the customer value theory
    LI Hua-min
    2010, 29 (7):  1335-1344.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010070018
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    Tourism destination choosing intention is a key field of tourism behavior research and tourism marketing. Although previous studies confirm that tourist value has a significant impact on tourism destination choosing intention, there has been little research on the dating of the formation mechanism of tourism destination choosing intention. This paper builds a conceptual model to incorporate tourist value, tourism destination image, service quality and abstraction of substitute tourism destination. In order to test this model, the scale of every variable is developed, which was confirmed by DELPHI and primary questionnaire. The model is empirically tested by analyzing the survey data using SEM. The result shows that tourist value, service quality and the image of tourism destination have significant influence on tourist behavior intention, and the service quality and image of tourism destination have significant influence on value of tourists. And abstraction of substitute tourism destination has no significant influence on choosing intention of tourism destination due to the promotion of traffic condition, casualness of tourism purpose and suburbanization and long-distance of tourism way, which is significantly different from the result of previous studies.

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