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Table of Content

    20 March 2010, Volume 29 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Experts Forum
    Trends and priority areas in ecosystem research of China
    FU Bo-jie
    2010, 29 (3):  383-396.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030001
    Abstract ( )   PDF (388KB) ( )   Save

    Ecosystem research has experienced important progress since the beginning of the 21st century. A series of hot scientific themes have aroused much attention of the academic realm such as biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, ecosystem management, ecological risks and ecological security, the ecological responses and effects of global change. The general trend of contemporary ecological research is multidimensional and can be summarized as deepening the scientific understanding on ecological mechanisms, ecosystem monitoring and modeling across spatiotemporal scales, integrative ecosystem assessment and management with consideration of both socioeconomic and biophysical factors. The socioeconomic development in China is faced with serious challenges for the limited natural resource reserve and disturbing environmental problems. In response to these challenges, large scale ecological conservation and restoration projects have already been implemented across the country, for which many scientific questions in ecosystem research are urgently needed for resolution. This paper proposed some priority areas and important directions for ecosystem science in China based on the integrative analysis of the trends and frontiers of international level ecological research and the practical needs for the relationship between environmental and development in China.

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    Earth Surface Processes
    Effect of artificial sediment sinks on sediment delivery ratio: An example from the Wudinghe River, China
    XU Jiong-xin
    2010, 29 (3):  397-407.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030002
    Abstract ( )   PDF (968KB) ( )   Save

    As an important measure to reduce the sediment entering the Yellow River, a great number of reservoirs and check-dams have been built in the Wudinghe River basin, trapping huge amount of sediment. As a result, artificial sediment sink formed, which greatly reduced sediment delivery ratio of the river. The influence of artificial sediment sink on sediment delivery ratio is an important issue in fluvial geomorphology, but so far there has been little research devoted to this issue. Based on data from 1956 to 1996 in the Wudinghe River basin, artificial sediment sink, erosion amount and sediment delivery ratio (SDR) have been calculated, temporal variation in these variables has been analyzed, and multiple regression equations have been established. These results show that (1) sediment yield and erosion amount decreased; (2) artificial sediment sink increased to a peak and then decreased; (3) SDR decreased to a minimum and then increased. This indicates that the temporal variation in SDR is mainly controlled by the variation in artificial sediment sink. To reveal quantitatively how the water and soil conservation measures and other factors influence sediment delivery ratio, multiple regression analysis has been conducted. The multiple regression equation shows that SDR increases with the increases in high-flow season precipitation (P6-9), the annual maximum 1-day rain amount (P1), the annual maximum 30-day cumulative rain amount (P30), and the runoff to precipitation ratio (Cr), but decreases with the increases in the areas of land terracing, tree and grass planting (Atfg) and the area of land created by check-dams (Ac). The increase in Ac makes the largest contribution to the decrease in SDR, and the decrease in Cr makes the second contribution. Among the three indices of precipitation, P30 makes the largest contribution, P6-9 the second and P1 the third. In two types of soil-water conservation measures, the effect of Ac on SDR is much larger than that of Atfg.

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    Modeling erosion processes on unpaved roads using KINEROS2
    SHI Zhi-hua, FANG Nu-fang, LI Lu, JIANG Cheng, PENG Ye-xuan
    2010, 29 (3):  408-415.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030003
    Abstract ( )   PDF (780KB) ( )   Save

    Unpaved road is a ubiquitous feature in mountainous areas. Although such roads facilitate the use and management of natural resources, they may result in adverse changes in watershed processes. In particular, they can alter hydrologic processes that influence sediment transport and delivery. In this paper, the Wangjiaqiao Watershed, located in the Three Gorges Area (TGA), is taken as a case study area to understand the impacts of unpaved roads on hydrologic processes, sediment transport, and sediment delivery at small watershed scale from a multidisciplinary perspective. The results showed that roads on the TGA could be classified into 3 classes based on their functions and scales. The event- and physics-based KINEROS2 runoff/erosion model for predicting overland flow generation and sediment production was applied to unpaved roads. Field rainfall simulations conducted in the TGA provided independent data for model calibration and validation. Validation showed that KINEROS2 can be parameterized to simulate total discharge, sediment transport and sediment concentration on small-scale road plots during simulated rainfall events. Differences between measured and simulated values in total runoff and total soil loss were about 3.6%-14.7% and 4.5%-31.8%, respectively. The KINEROS2 model, however, did not accurately predict time-dependent changes in sediment output and concentration. In particular, early flush peaks and the temporal decay in sediment output were not predicted.

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    Climate and Global Change
    Assessment of rainstorm flood risk in the area of lakes and depressions along Huaihe River
    SHENG Shao-xue, SHI Lei, LIU Jia-fu, YE Jin-yin, LIU Jing
    2010, 29 (3):  416-422.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030004
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    Taking the lakes and depressions along the Huaihe River region as the research object, several indexes including the rainfall, runoff, terrain, rivers, land use, population, and economic data, were combined in this study, based on the principles of risk assessment for natural disasters and flood disasters factors such as the fatalness of inducing factors and the vulnerability of hazard bearing body. Preprocessing models provided by GIS software were used to standardize related parameters, and the standardized multi-source datasets in raster format were obtained. Models for evaluating the rainstorm and flood disaster risks were developed with the ModelBuilder tools of ArcGIS9.2 by combining various influencing factors, and the weights of which were determined through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach. Then a comprehensive flood risk rating map was generated through the map algebra functions in GIS and the comprehensive index method. The results of the comprehensive risk assessment of storm disaster were validated with the regional rainstorm and flood inundation area in the Huaihe River region in 2003. Statistical analysis shows that flood inundated area was 60.66% in the extremely high risk zone, 33.29% in the high risk zone, and 6.05% in the medium risk zone. Results indicate that the accuracy of the proposed approach reaches 93.95% in middle and high risk areas along the Huaihe River. The high accuracies in this study suggest that the proposed model and the generated comprehensive flood risk rating map yield valuable significance for supporting decision-making on flood disasters.

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    Spatial and temporal distributions of drought in Hebei Province over the past 50 years
    YAN Feng, WANG Yan-jiao, WU Bo
    2010, 29 (3):  423-430.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030005
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    In the context of global warming and human activities, drought has become one of the most serious meteorological disasters in the world. As a major grain producing province in China, Hebei Province shows great vulnerability to drought. In this paper, standardized precipitation index (SPI) was used as drought indicator and precipitation in meteorological stations of China from 1958 to 2007 was used to calculate the index in spring, summer, autumn and winter. Kriging interpolation was applied to SPI values in each station so that all the values could be spatially and temporally comparable. Based on raster data of seasonal SPI, drought rate and drought probability were calculated to show the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of drought in Hebei Province over the past 50 years. The results showed that spring drought was the most serious event in a year and the drought rate showed a gradually declining trend. Drought rate in summer presented an upward trend, but in autumn and winter it showed slightly declining trends. The 50-year average drought rates in spring, summer, autumn and winter were 30.0%, 26.0%, 27.6% and 26.0%, respectively. Over the past 50 years in Hebei Province, spring drought in the 1970s was the most severe one. The most serious interdecadal droughts occurred respectively in summer since 2000, autumn in the 1960s and winter in the 1990s. Occurrence probability of spring drought was more than 20% in the whole province and drought-prone areas with the probability more than 30% were almost distributed in each city. In most areas, occurrence probability of summer drought, autumn drought and winter drought was from 20% to 30%. In summer, drought-prone areas were mainly located in the north and southwest of Hebei. Drought-prone areas in autumn were mainly located in the western and southern parts and in winter they were mainly distributed in the northern part. In order to do a good job in drought prevention and mitigation in Hebei Province, government and agricultural managers should pay more attention to the droughts that occur from spring to autumn, especially the spring drought. Moreover, irrigation systems should be further strengthened and improved in the mountain farms mainly located in the west and north of Hebei Province.

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    Variation of bio-temperature indexes on the Tibetan Plateau in the past 40 years
    ZHAO Dong-sheng, WU Shao-hong
    2010, 29 (3):  431-439.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030006
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    The Tibetan Plateau is sensitive to climate change, and its detailed trend of climate change is highly interesting. Temperature change is a key content of climate change. Currently, more studies focused on statistical meaning of temperature change, but ignored its biological meaning. In this study, mean temperature of the warmest month (TWM), mean temperature of the coldest month (TCM), accumulated temperature of duration temperature ≥10℃(AT10), duration with mean daily temperature ≥10℃ (DT10), accumulated temperature of duration temperature ≥5℃ (AT5), duration with mean daily temperature ≥5℃ (DT5), accumulated temperature of duration temperature ≥0℃ (AT0) and duration with mean daily temperature ≥0℃ (DT0) were selected as representative bio-temperature indexes due to clear biological meaning, and their changing tendencies were analyzed based on observation data of 87 stations on the Tibetan Plateau during 1966-2005. The result indicated that TWM and TCM increased significantly with different velocities, and that also it slowed down with different variation tendencies on the spatial distribution. Even contrary variation tendency between TWM and TCM was found at some stations, but its significance level is lower. AT10, AT5 and AT0 were ascending with high significance level, with the largest increase in AT10, followed by AT5 and AT0. Differences with variation tendency of AT10, AT5 and AT0, DT5 had been greatly rising, followed by DT10 and DT0. As far as significance level was concerned, DT10 was the highest, followed by DT10 and DT0. In general, air temperature of the Tibetan Plateau is rising, which can affect ecological niche and eco-geographical boundary, and make structures and functions of ecosystem modified adaptive to temperature change.

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    Land Resource and Use
    Effects of obstruction and corridor on the construction land pattern evolving in paralleled ridge-valley area
    LI Yang-bing, ZHANG Yang-yang
    2010, 29 (3):  440-448.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030007
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    The paralleled ridge-valley area of the Sichuan basin have quite important ecological status, but its land use pattern of mountain and hills has been changed by the urban sprawl of Chongqing city in the past ten years. In this paper, the Chongqing Urban Section located in the eastern paralleled ridge-valley area was chosen as an example, and was divided into five subareas according to the northern-southern low mountains patterns to explore how the channels and low mountain obstruct effect influence the construction land pattern expansion and evolution, through comparing and analyzing the pattern of urban land use evolution and the area proportion of urban land of all subareas. The image data of MSS in 1978, TM in 1986, 1995, 2000 and CBERS in 2006 were chosen as a datum source. In 1978-2000, the relatively slow process of urbanization in subareas except Geleshan-Tongluoshan reflects the low mountain obstructive effect fully. In 2000-2006, with the construction of belt freeway, the tunnels across north-south of low-mountain, the river-spanning bridges and the gradual improvement of other radialized highways, urban dynamic expansion degree of the west of the Geleshan and the east of the Tongluoshan is 601.32%, and 143.22%, respectively. Therefore, man-made channels play a significant role in the rapid expansion processes of the construction land, and there is obvious channel effect of the traffic network is in the study area. Furthermore, it is very necessary to do further research about the possible scope of land-use change affected by channels in order to optimize patterns of construction land in the study area. The research results of this paper could provide a basis for the optimization of land use pattern and man-land relationship of the study area.

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    Response of sandy desertification to land use change in the west of Songnen Plain: A case study in Tailai County
    WANG Lei, ZHANG Xue-ping, ZHANG Shu-wen, NING Jing, YAO Yun-long
    2010, 29 (3):  449-459.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030008
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    The Songnen Plain is an important grain production base in China. As a typical vulnerable area of eco-environment, its west part is one of the foci of land use and sandy desertification study. In this paper, Tailai County, a typical sandy desertification region in the Songnen Plain was taken as an example, and a method integrating remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and field survey was employed to build the dataset of land use and sand desertification for analysis. Remote sensing images included the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) image in 1986 and 2000, and the image with the Charge-Coupled Device Camera (CCD) on the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) in 2005. Moreover, the land use change and dynamic response of sandy desertification were further analyzed by spatial analysis model of GIS. Results showed that quantity and degree of land use remarkably changed at a region level, and the response of sandy desertification was also remarkable. First, the degree of land use change was mainly aggravated, and it increased by leaps and bounds in the period 1986-2000, and slowed down in the period 2000-2005. Second, the general trend of sandy desertification was gradually increasing, at a rate of 40.7 hm2/a in the former period and 8 hm2/a in the latter period. Furthermore, low coverage grassland and forest were distributed in the highest risk region of sandy desertification, and had an increasing trend. Third, the transformation of land use had great impacts on sandy desertification. Although sandy desertification degree of land use unchanged was mainly mitigated, the transformation area of cultivated land and low coverage grassland to sand land was much larger than the area of sand land converted to them, thus it was still at the risk of further increase. The region of land use changed has been suffering sandy desertification since 1986 with two different desertification periods identified. The first period (1986-2000) saw severe sandy desertification, and in the second period (2000-2005) the sandy desertification was weakened greatly. On the whole, land use tended to be unreasonable, although the trend was mitigated, it was still at the risk of further increase in the sandy desertification.

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    Dynamic simulation of land use change based on the improved CLUE-S model: A case study of Yongding County, Zhangjiajie
    WU Gui-ping, ZENG Yong-nian, FENG Xue-zhi, XIAO Peng-feng, WANG Ke
    2010, 29 (3):  460-470.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030009
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1232KB) ( )   Save

    Land use/land cover change (LUCC) is an important content of geographical research on global change today, while spatial simulation on land use change is one of the key content of LUCC. In recent years, CLUE-S (The Conversion of Land Use and its Effects at Small Region Extent) model has been used widely in the world. This paper mainly aimed at CLUE-S model to improve the model in spatial analysis module by incorporating components describing the spatial autocorrelation into a classic logistic model. Meanwhile, Yongding County in Zhangjiajie city, which is one of the typical karst mountain areas in northwestern Hunan Province, was selected as the research area. By using the improved CLUE-S model, this paper simulated and analysed regional land use change in Yongding County. All driving factors such as distance to town, distance to river, distance to road, population density, altitude, slope and aspect were produced with ArcGIS spatial analysis tools. Then the weighting coefficient of every land use type was analysed with SPSS13.0. The results indicated that improved spatial analysis module of CLUE-S model showed better goodness of fitting and higher accuracy of fitting. The distribution of land use types of cultivated land, forest land and residence land areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were increased to 0.827, 0.875 and 0.838 respectively. For a better understanding of the future land use change in the region, the improved CLUE-S model is further put into application to predict spatial distribution of land use change from 2005 to 2020. It is argued that the improved CLUE-S model based on Autologistic method is reasonable to some degree. At the same time, these types of analysis can provide valuable information for government decisions on land use management in Yongding County and similar areas.

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    The study on spatial expansion and its driving forces in the urban fringe of Beijing
    ZHANG Ning, FANG Lin-na, ZHOU Jie, SONG Jin-ping, JIANG Jun
    2010, 29 (3):  471-480.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030010
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    Urban fringe is a special area with interaction of urban and rural areas. The study of relative research shows that the authoritative theory and methods for demarcating urban fringe have not formed yet, but they are developing gradually from mere qualitative analysis into the combination of the qualitative and the quantitative studies. And maintaining the integrity of administrative units was considered. This article tries to break down barriers of administrative units and gives more precise boundaries by extracting the range of the urban fringe of Beijing respectively in 1994, 1999 and 2004, and using the catastrophe-point method with the TM satellite images. At first, the urban land use information is extracted from the TM images of Beijing in 1994, 1999 and 2004, according to which the proportion of urban land use is calculated. And then, this article detects the abrupt changes of the proportion of the urban land use in different directions, and identifies the inner and outer boundaries of the urban fringe in Beijing according to the breakpoints of all directions. Based on the data, this article analyzes the spatial-expansion characteristics including the expanding amount, types, directions, areas and intensity, and explores their driving forces. The results show that: (1) the expanding speed was increasing step by step, the expanding amount and intensity were both greater in the period of 1999-2004 than those in 1994-1999, the main expanding directions were the east and the north, and the main type was sprawling outwards. Those expanding areas are mostly in Chaoyang, Daxing, Tongzhou and Changping districts. (2) The expansion of the urban fringe of Beijing was limited not only by the geographical conditions, but also by the socioeconomic factors, such as economic development, industrial growth, urban infrastructure etc. , and policy factors as well, such as urban planning.

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    Economy and Regional Development
    Function zoning of development-optimized area at a county level:A case study of Shangyu, Zhejiang
    WANG Chuan-sheng, ZHAO Hai-ying, SUN Guiyan, FAN Jie
    2010, 29 (3):  481-490.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030011
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    The "Eleventh Five-year Plan" divides national functional zones into the basic unit of county administrative division, which is called major function oriented zoning (MFOZ). According to general disposition of national MFOZ, central and provincial governments are implementing MFOZ strategy in the unit of county administrative division. After prefectural and county level governments have implemented national MFOZ, the spatial development sequence should be specified, the development intensity should be limited, oriented zones should be designated and the "red line" areas of spatial governance should be made definite. In the view of the above, choosing a typical county area and exploring its functional oriented zoning, its major function will play a big role in the national's spatial planning in "the Twelfth Five-year Period", and it will provide experience to study the functional oriented zoning which is the theme of MFOZ for the present academic circles. The paper takes Shangyu as an example to study general principles, the train of thought and index system of county area functional oriented zoning. The oriented function zones of Shangyu should follow five principles, which are general principles of development-optimized county area: (1) area extropism; (2) based on population and industry spatial combined pattern; (3) spatial rational regulation and control, and intensive usage of land resources; (4) ecological preservation and construction of areas' integrality; (5) areas relatively concentrated and give consideration to town administrative units. Oriented function zones are classified into two levels: the first level is fundamental zones to make clear next level's development, as well as to adjust and restrict areas' development limits. The basic unit is town and the final result covers the whole county areas. The second level is zones to implement regional policies. The basic unit is natural landscape or plot, and the result does not cover the whole areas. This paper evaluates land development suitability and analyses the spatial distribution of major natural and human factors. On this basis, it estimates the rational value of Shangyu's land development intensity according to the arrangment of national MFOZ. Furthermore this paper suggests a functional oriented zoning plan with 2 levels and 4 types. According to land development suitability evaluation of state technological and economic seedtime, the reasonable value of Shangyu's land development intensity should not exceed 13%.

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    Empirical study on industrial isomorphism comparing Fujian and Taiwan provinces by the similar coefficient and R/S
    WEI Su-qiong, CHEN Yan-hua, GEN Jing-huan
    2010, 29 (3):  491-499.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030012
    Abstract ( )   PDF (417KB) ( )   Save

    Industrial isomorphism is one of the bottlenecks to the development of regional integration and industrial promotion in economic areas. Fujian and Taiwan, which have geographical proximities and historical/cultural similarities as well as their comparable stages of economic development in different periods, were chosen to be research objects in this paper. From fields of three kinds of industries, the industry and the tertiary industry, firstly, whose present situation and change of industrial structure were analyzed by using the similar coefficient. Secondly, the trend of industrial structure would be forecasted through such a method as R/S from fractal theory. The results show that the phenomenon of industrial isomorphism in these two regions is obvious. If the three industries continue to develop under the circumstances, the level of industrial isomorphism will continue to increase, and the manufacturing industry will be fluctuant in the rising trend, while the level of industrial isomorphism decreased slowly in tertiary industry, but it will be growing in the future as a whole. However, the appearance of industrial isomorphism between Fujian and Taiwan has its own inevitability. Because of the similarity of resource, economic development and economic connection, it does a great benefit to the occurrence of industrial isomorphism. At the same time, industrial isomorphism reveals a trend that industrial division between Fujian and Taiwan has passed from vertical to horizontal. Therefore, in macroscopic view, the industrial isomorphism may not bring negative influence to the future economic cooperation between Fujian and Taiwan. With the level of the similar industrial structure increasing process, the paper put forward some suggestions on the direction of economic development and the adjustment of industrial structure for Fujian Province.

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    Urban and Rural Studies
    Size effect of housing price and size standard in Beijing
    GAO Xiao-lu
    2010, 29 (3):  500-509.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030013
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    Due to absence of practical housing standards, the structure of housing market in Chinese cities has been seriously distorted and housing supplies are incapable to satisfy reasonable demands. Therefore, it is of great significance and in emergency to stipulate appropriate standards to guide housing construction and consumption. To this end, this study addressed the issue of housing floor area standard. First, it proposed an empirical framework for analyzing floor area standard, i.e., the problem of determining floor area standard was formulated as an optimization problem of maximizing the utilities of households. Then, it reported an empirical study in Beijing. Using the second-hand apartment house data in the Asian-Olympic Village area, the benefit and cost of households with respect to the size of houses were examined with a hedonic regression approach. It was found that the prices of second-hand apartment houses significantly differed by housing floor areas, and the critical size thresholds were identified by the regression analysis. Based on the results, the standard of appropriate housing size was presented and suggestions were made on the regulation of housing market. Specifically, (1) it would be economically efficient to control the minimum and preferential levels of apartment housing. It is recommended to take 50 m2 as the minimum level, and 80 m2 for the preferential level. (2) It is recommended to take 50~60 m2 as suitable size standard for small families. To encourage stepwise consumption, the government might consider decreasing housing transfer costs by reducing tax or providing stipend for the development of small units.

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    Temporal-spatial impact effects of large-scale parks on residential prices: Exemplified by the Huangxing Park in Shanghai
    SHI Yi-shao, ZHANG Rui
    2010, 29 (3):  510-520.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030014
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    Along with the improvement of people's living standard and the enhancement of consciousness about environmental protection, the willing to pay (WTP) for environmental amenity has increased day by day. The research on the valuation of living environment has been paid more attentions. However, there are only the qualitative impact studies, but lack of the quantitative impact analysis from the temporal and spatial views. Moreover, the existing studies have offered little theoretical support for urban policy decision-makings. It is these shortcomings that have brought out the inequality in the distribution of real estate appreciation, a waste of location resources as well as the fault of urban land planning and urban decision-makings. In the present study the authors apply hedonic pricing method, market comparative method and spatial proliferation effect theory, bring in the weighted distance, and analyze the temporal-spatial impact effects of large-scale park on the surrounding residential prices exemplified by the Huangxing Park in Shanghai city, and put forward its metric model of value spill over. The research results show that the appreciation of housing prices varies at temporal and spatial scales, displays significant conic curve relation with weighted distance and decreases gradually with increased weighted distance. The appreciation in north-south direction is more than that in east-west direction, and its impact manifests significant cubic curve relation with weighted distance. Its maximum impact radius is 1.59 km, and the strongest impact location is 0.29 km. Finally, some suggestions are proposed so as to determine rationally the location of residential development and to distribute properly land appreciation earnings.

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    Effects of urban growth poles on economic development in central and western China
    KE Shan-zi
    2010, 29 (3):  521-534.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030015
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    In order to analyze the possible effects of growth poles on Central Rise and Western Development in the central and western China, this paper constructs a spread-backwash effects model based on the theories of growth pole and unbalanced growth, and applies a spatial simultaneous statistical model to a dataset of 942 cities and counties in the ten central and western provinces for the period from 2000 to 2007. The statistical results show that central cities, presented by prefecture or higher level cities, had net spread effects of non-agricultural GDP growth on county-level cities and counties, suggesting that different levels of cities and counties had a tendency to develop economies complementary to each other. However, these larger, central cities showed backwash effects of employment growth on the county-level cities and spread effects on rural counties. Neighboring county-level cities had strong net spread effects on each other in both non-agricultural GDP and employment growths, but the county-level cities exerted negative effects on growth of rural counties, especially in non-agricultural GDP growth. Several important policy lessons are drawn from this study. First, the research findings in general support the growth pole strategy adopted by virtually all of the provinces in the central and western regions. Second, the evidence of backwash effect of large cities on the neighboring cities calls for new policy initiatives to mitigate competition for the same types of workers and professionals. Third, integration and collaboration of economies in neighboring cities should be an important component of the overall growth strategy for each region to fully benefit from a growth pole strategy. Fourth, the research findings also suggest a need for improvement on regional transportation infrastructure and education to close the gaps between the central and western regions and the eastern region.

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    Research on spatial combination and integrated patterns of Jianghuai urban agglomeration
    LI Jun-feng, JIAO Hua-fu
    2010, 29 (3):  535-544.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030016
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    Urban agglomeration is an advanced spatial organization form of urbanization and plays an important role in regional socio-economic development. Jianghuai urban agglomeration is a new idea proposed by Anhui Province for regional economic development combination of provincial economic development and central China rising. Based on geography theory and the new cask theory and by using city flow and intensity of urban spatial interaction models, the study calculates quantitatively city flow intensity of Jianghuai urban agglomeration and spatial reciprocity intensity between the cities. The study reveals the spatial development direction of Jianghuai urban agglomeration, and puts forward the spatial integrated patterns of Jianghuai urban agglomeration development. The results show: (1) The total value and the average value of city flow intensity of Jianghuai urban agglomeration are lower than those of the other urban agglomerations. As the core of urban agglomeration, the advantages of Hefei city are not obvious in comparison with Wuhu and Ma'anshan cities. Therefore Jianghuai urban agglomeration is a "weak-core type" urban agglomeration. (2) Spatial reciprocity intensity between cities of Hefei is slightly higher than that of Wuhu and Ma'anshan and significantly higher than other cities. Hefei and Wuhu play a more important role in the urban agglomeration, and they are two most important nodes in urban agglomeration. (3) The spatial connection direction appears in a circle-shape which radiates externally around Hefei and expands along the traffic corridor in an axis including He-Xu and He-Chao-Wu expressway from south to north and along the Yangtze River expressway from east to west. (4) Spatial integration of urban agglomerations is achieved through the different stages of development of the regional development layout mode. According to urban flow strength spatial reciprocity intensity between cities, Jianghuai urban agglomeration should be a combination mode of "circle" and "T" types at present; when the long-term development of urban agglomeration is relatively mature, the "dual-core" type spatial integrated pattern can be gradually formed with Hefei and Wuhu as the center, hence Jianghuai urban agglomeration develops coordinately.

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    Culture and Tourism
    The evaluation of tourists' safety value: Taking the Changdao Island of Shandong Province as an example
    ZHENG Xiang-min, YIN Wei-lin
    2010, 29 (3):  545-555.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030017
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    There have been abundant studies on both industrial manufacturing safety value and tourism safety, but only little quantitative research on economic benefit of tourism safety, which makes it difficult for the tourism enterprises to calculate the input and the output for safety management compared to that of industrial enterprises. Considering the tourists in Shandong's Changdao Island as the study objects, this paper estimates and evaluates the tourists' safety value with the quantitative concept, the evaluation system and the calculation formula of tourists' safety value that the authors have established; finally it puts forward the quantitative evaluation and measure between inputs and the outputs of safety management in Changdao Island. The main conclusions are as follows: firstly, as most of tourists have positive image about the safety of Changdao Island, this island can provide more exciting activities or activities related to the sea for the tourists to absorb more expenses; secondly, tourism enterprises can decide the safety input according to the potential market scale deducted from the tourists' pay willingness for safety, which will then be transformed to the actual operation benefit.

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    An analysis of tourism revitalization of historic district in perspective of tourist experience:A case study of San-Fang Qi-Xiang district in Fuzhou City
    LIU Jia-ming, LIU Ying
    2010, 29 (3):  556-564.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030018
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    Presently, two key problems, similar development mode and analogical tourist experience have emerged with tourism development in domestic historic districts. This paper discusses the new thought of tourism revitalization in historic district in perspective of tourist experience. Firstly, based on the deep analysis of tourist experience's essential elements in historic districts, the 6E experience model is established to summarize the tourist experience, including Estheticism and nostalgia, Education and culture, Entertainment and leisure, Escape and relax, Exchange and communication and Emotion sublimation. Meanwhile, how to build up and enhance every single experience of the 6E model in tourism revitalization of historic districts is also explained. Secondly, the application of the 6E model is demonstrated elaborately in the case of Conceptual Planning of Tourism Development in San-Fang Qi-Xiang Historic District in Fuzhou City. Considering the hierarchy and comprehensibility of tourist experience and combined with site environment analysis, San-Fang Qi-Xiang historic district is divided into four function zones: Nanhou old street mall, Warmth and leisure lane, Antai water-front recreation zone and high-class hotel zone for special tourists. The four zones are distinguished by degrees of bustling and tranquility as well as the hierarchy of experience. This paper concludes that it is beneficial to use the 6E model to segment function zones and create new products in tourism revitalization of historic districts, because it helps to revitalize and create a fresh life style with historical continuation in cultural, social and economic aspects. Therefore, it is perceived as a sustainable thought of development.

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    Characteristics and development of tourism resource objects in Hinggan League of Inner Mongolia
    FU Hua, LI Jun-yan
    2010, 29 (3):  565-573.  doi: 10.11821/yj2010030019
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    In order to develop a practical strategy for developing tourism resources and to speed up the "tourism to revitalize Hinggan League" process, it is necessary to define the quantities of tourism resource objects, distributions and combinations. Hinggan League, located in China's temperate forest steppe zone, has a long history of human activities and natural and cultural tourism resources, as well as distinct cultural characteristics of the grassland. In accordance with GBPT18972-2003 resource classification system, with a surveying database of tourism resource objects and a mean square deviation and empirical equation, this paper deals with characteristics and development of tourism resource objects in Hinggan League. Fundamental types of tourism resources have distinctive features of meadow cultures. There are fewer tourism resource objects in the middle part than in the northern and southern parts. Ulanhot has the greatest density of tourism resource objects, and Horqin Right-wing Banner has the smallest ones. Horqin Right-wing Banner has the maximum value D(X) .In order to reduce the development of capital, it is required to select key regional regions to develop. Different fundamental types of tourism resources contain different numbers of tourism resource objects. Horqin Right-wing Banner has an ideal combination model of tourism resources. Combining the tourism industry with tourism resources, the paper gives proposals on tourism developments in this league as well as in the other six counties (or banners). The number and type of tourism resources are the main basis for the direction of the tourism industry. Resource quality and quantity should be considered to make tourism development strategy. High-quality tourism resources have a strong attraction for the formation of well-known scenic spots, such as Arxan scenic hot springs. However, the undue emphasis on the quality of tourism resources is bound to increase over the number of visitors to scenic areas, exceeding the capacity of the tourism environment, which will lead to a sharp decline in the quality of tourism resources. The amount of tourism resources has something to do with the scale of tourism development in the region, and scientific and reasonable development is expected to foster distinctive scenic spots (points). In the region with the concentration of objects, small-scale tour operators can make universal access to more generous returns for the local population, and is conducive to resource conservation.

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